Open Access Original Research Article

Global Cassava Food Supply and Occurrence of Ataxic Polyneuropathy and Konzo

O. S. A. Oluwole

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 138-149
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2015/11453

Study was done to describe global cassava food supply, and its relationship to occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy and konzo, which are attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava food. Cassava food supply and occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy and konzo in all countries from 1961 to 2011, and GDP data for 2011 were analyzed. Cassava food supply ≥ 10% of expected daily calorie need was compared with GDP and occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy and konzo. About half a billion people live where cassava food supply was ≥180 kcal/person/day. Cassava food supply ≥180 kcal/person/day was associated with GDP per capita ≤$535, p<0.0001, and with occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy or konzo, odds ratio 30 (95% CI 7–134). Strong association of high cassava supply with low income and with endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy and konzo indicates that reduction of contribution of cassava to energy needs will reduce the burden of disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Diversity of Rural Households in North Central Nigeria

Mary O. Agada, Edwin M. Igbokwe

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 150-155
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2015/14875

Aims: To determine the dietary diversity score and diversity within food groups consumed and the probability of food security among rural households in North Central Nigeria.
Study Design: A cross sectional survey design was used.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted among three ethnic groups in North Central Nigeria, between November and December, 2011. The ethnic groups were Tiv, Igala and Eggon in Benue, Kogi and Nasarawa States respectively.
Methodology: A sample of 340 households was interviewed to identify the variety of foods consumed over the previous 24 hours. Data from the food groups was analyzed using percentages. Since national dietary data is not available on mean Dietary Diversity Score, mean terciles were used to classify households into low, medium and high dietary diversity.
Results: The findings indicated that beside oil and fat (97%) and spices and condiments (96%), root and tuber crops (86%) constituted the food group consumed by most households. Most Tiv (96.7%) and Igala (94.4%) households reported use of root and tuber crops whereas most Eggon (78.6%) households reported use of cereals. Mean dietary diversity terciles were 2.90, 4.53 and 6.37 for low, medium and high dietary diversity respectively, with a mean of 4.60 for the study area.
Conclusion: Rural households in North Central Nigeria consumed an average of four to five food groups per day. However, the diet consumed is low in dietary variety. Consequently, access to nutritious foods remained a challenge in the region. Thus, farmers should be encouraged to produce and consume food of increased quality and diversity for improved nutrition and food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Antimicrobial Residues in Meat Using a Broad Spectrum Screening Strategy

David Sanz, Pedro Razquin, Santiago Condón, Teresa Juan, Benito Herraiz, Luis Mata

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 156-165
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2015/13795

Aims: The aim of this paper was to assess the incidence of antimicrobial residues in market muscle samples from different animal species (bovine, ovine, poultry and porcine) using a new screening strategy.
Methodology: 4849 samples were evaluated with a methodology that combines a broad spectrum microbial test (Explorer) and a specific test for quinolones detection (Equinox). Supplementary tests were performed to achieve additional information about the nature of antimicrobials in positive samples.
Results: In a first step, 355 samples (7.3%) showed a positive result in Explorer and/or Equinox tests. The highest incidence of positive samples was obtained in poultry (9.7%) while the lowest rate was found in porcine samples (3.4%). Half of the positive screening samples (53%) showed also a positive result with supplementary tests indicating that tetracyclines, aminoglycosides sulphonamides and quinolones might be present in these samples. Aminoglycosides were the predominant residues in poultry while tetracyclines were more frequent in bovine and porcine samples. Sulphonamides were the main family of residues found in ovine.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the current strategies used for control of antimicrobial residues in muscle could not be adequate enough. In order to protect consumers from antibiotic exposition, it should be advisable to implement more efficient methods for the screening of antibiotic residues in muscle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Food and Nutrition Hazards Related to Public Health, Food Technology and Ecology: Perceptions of Experts and Non-experts in the United Kingdom

Hurjus Bahra, Anne Mullen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 166-178
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2015/11161

Aim: This study investigated perceptions of risk to self, risk to society, risk denial, control, responsibility, trust and knowledge of food and nutrition-related hazards among expert and non-expert groups with an aim of better understanding barriers to effective communication between experts and the public.
Design: Participants completed a questionnaire housed on an online platform.
Methodology: Experts were recruited from nutritionists in the food industry in the UK. Non-experts were recruited from a voluntary public panel with access to the online platform. Questions documented demographic variables and scores for the risk that food and nutrition-related hazards pose to self and society. Participants scored perceptions of expert and personal control of hazards, personal responsibility for averting the hazards, trust in experts for managing the hazards and personal knowledge of the hazards. The hazards were categorised for analysis into public nutrition, food technology and food ecology to reflect degrees of citizen participation in risk management.
Results: Experts scored perception of risk to self and risk to society from food technology hazards significantly lower than non-experts. Both groups had greatest risk denial, scores of personal control, personal responsibility and personal knowledge, and lowest scores for expert control, for public nutrition hazards. Trust in experts was higher among experts than it was among non-experts. Gender, personal responsibility and knowledge, but not trust in experts, were significant predictors of risk perception.
Conclusions: There were similarities in perception of risk of public nutrition and food ecology hazards between experts and non-experts, but differences in the perception of risk and trust in experts relating to food technology. Both groups perceived higher personal control of and personal responsibility for, and lower expert control for, public nutrition hazards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Minimal Impact of Nutrition Education and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

Meredith G. Wagner, Yeong Rhee, Kerrie Hert-Honrath, Elizabeth H. Blodgett Salafia, Donna Terbizan

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 179-189
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2015/15994

Aims: To determine the effectiveness of a community-based fruit and vegetable education program and provision of fruits and vegetables on consumption of fruits, vegetables, antioxidants, and changes in biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among overweight and obese adults.
Study Design: Randomized controlled design.
Place and Duration of Study: North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota; 14 weeks.
Methodology: Forty-seven adults (31 women; 45.9±11.8 y; body mass index 32.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. The control group received no intervention, the education group attended weekly nutrition education lessons, the fruit and vegetable group attended weekly nutrition education lessons and received one serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables per day for 10 weeks. Fasting blood was drawn and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and antioxidants was assessed using three-day food records.
Results: Increased consumption of fruit from pre- to post-test was indicated among fruit and vegetable group participants, P = .01, and among education group participants, although this difference was not significant, P = .11. In contrast, a significant decrease in fruit servings consumed from pre- to post-test for control group participants was observed, P = .02. Vegetable consumption was the same for control group participants, decreased by 0.3 serving among education group participants, and increased by 0.4 serving among fruit and vegetable group participants. No significant differences in plasma TNF-α, TBARS, or CRP concentrations from pre- to post-test were indicated among the three groups, although the largest decrease was observed among fruit and vegetable group participants, P = .07.
Conclusion: Changes in fruit and vegetable consumption among participants were minimally associated with improvements in inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers. Adequate and varied fruit and vegetable consumption is recommended to aid in the prevention and regulation of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of the Nutritional Status of Under-five Children and their Mothers in Rural and Urban Areas of Anambra State, Nigeria

Nkiru N. Ezeama, Prosper O. U. Adogu, Christian C. Ibeh, Echendu D. Adinma

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 190-201
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2015/17392

Aim: Malnutrition in the form of under-nutrition is still a major public health problem in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. This study compares the nutritional status of under-five children and their mothers in rural and urban areas of Anambra State Nigeria.
Methodology: This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out in one urban and two rural local government areas of Anambra State, Nigeria namely Awka South, Dunukofia and Anaocha respectively. A total of 657 mother-child pairs were selected from eligible households using the multistage sampling technique. Data on household food security was obtained from the mothers using semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaires while anthropometric measurements were carried out on the children and their mothers using weighing scales and height boards.
Results: The overall prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight among the under-five children in this study were 15.1%, 18.1% and 10.4% respectively, and the proportions were higher in the rural area than in the urban. The prevalence of stunting (height < 152 cm) in the mothers was 7.9% in the rural area compared to 9.1% in the urban area. Majority of the women were overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0), more in the urban (69.3%) than in the rural (59.2%).
Conclusion: This study confirmed that under-five under-nutrition remains a serious public health problem in Anambra State, Nigeria. In order to reduce child morbidity and mortality to which malnutrition contributes significantly, concerted effort must be made by the government to improve child and maternal nutritional status by directing attention to improving household food security through developing and implementing policies that improve the livelihoods of the population.

Open Access Review Article

Short Review of Extracts of Rosemary as a Food Additive

Paul de Raadt, Sabrina Wirtz, Ellen Vos, Hans Verhagen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 126-137
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2015/10404

Extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis L., more commonly known as rosemary, have been approved for use in the EU as food additive E932 under Regulation 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and the Council. Rosemary extracts are currently widely used to increase shelf life of food products. Rosemary extracts are characterised by two reference antioxidant compounds, carnosol and carnosic acid. This characterization allows for differences in rosemary extracts. Four approved production methods, as described by Commission Regulation 231/2012, produce rosemary extracts with different compositions and antioxidant activity. This results in difficulties to compare scientific data and to assess the safety of approved rosemary extracts. Based on unpublished studies for each of the four approved extract types, EFSA concluded that “the proposed uses and use levels would not be of safety concern“. Yet, gaps in knowledge still exist for the approved extracts as many different rosemary extracts are used in scientific research.