Open Access Grey Literature

Refined Exposure Assessment of Smoke Flavoring Primary Products with Use Levels Provided by the Industry. A Pilot Study into Data Collection of Use Levels

Corinne Sprong

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 10-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2016/20711

Aim: The study was performed on the initiative of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (VWS) and the Federation of the Dutch Food and Grocery Industry (FNLI), in order to develop a risk-based monitoring system as requested in EU Regulations EU 1332/2008 (food enzymes), 1333/2008 (food additives) and 1334/2008 (flavorings). In this study, we explored the appropriateness of smoke flavor primary product use levels provided by the industry for refined exposure assessment of these substances.

Approach and Results: Previously, exposure estimates were performed with aggregated food categories. In this study, use levels of smoke flavor primary products obtained from the industry were linked to individual food consumption data of children aged 2–6 years and of the population aged 7-69 years, using disaggregated food categories. The reported data were suitable for exposure assessment, provided that they were sufficiently representative for foods consumed in the Netherlands.

To evaluate the method, the exposure assessment was performed for the total intake of all smoke flavor primary products. Therefore, the exposure estimates of the current study cannot be used for the risk assessment of individual smoke flavor primary products. Nevertheless, this would be possible with the current dataset using the method described in this report, provided that additional data on market shares of foods or of individual smoke flavor primary products are available.

Conclusion: The exposure to smoke flavor primary products can be more accurately assessed using data obtained from the industry. The cooperation between risk managers, exposure assessors and the food industry results in a win-win-situation for all parties by 1) providing a cost-effective approach for risk managers, 2) providing exposure assessors a reliable and representative data set and 3) providing a realistic estimate, which is important for both the government and the industry. The monitoring system may be used to assess exposure levels of additives and flavorings in other European Member States. It is recommended to explore the use of the monitoring system in other European Member States, with smoke flavoring primary products as a case study.

 

The complete report can be downloaded for free from:

 

http://www.rivm.nl/dsresource?objectid=rivmp:225311&type=org&disposition=inline

 

Full report is also available as ‘Supplementary File’.

Open Access Grey Literature

Refined Exposure Assessment of E150 Food Colours with Use Levels Provided by the Industry

Corinne Sprong, Maryse Niekerk, Gerda Van Donkersgoed, Zohreh Etemad

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 41-42
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2016/20710

Aim: The study was performed on the initiative of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (VWS) and the Federation of the Dutch Food and Grocery Industry (FNLI), in order to develop a risk-based monitoring system as requested in EU Regulations EU 1332/2008 (food enzymes), 1333/2008 (food additives) and 1334/2008 (flavorings).

Approach and Results: The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) performed a study in which the total dietary exposure to E150a, E150b, E150c and E150d was estimated by applying use levels provided by the food industry. Previously, exposure to E150 was estimated using maximum use levels linked to aggregated food categories (e.g. all beers, including blond beer, were assumed to contain the maximum reported use level of dark beer), which results in overestimates of exposure. Collection of use levels of foods present on the Dutch market allows refined linkage of these concentrations to foods on the food group level (e.g. use levels of kidney bean soup were linked to the consumption of ‘legume soup’ instead of to all foods belonging to the food category ‘soups and broths’) or even on food level (e.g. use levels of ‘speculaas’ were linked to the consumption of this food instead of all foods belonging to the food category ‘fine bakery wares’). When refining the exposure assessment in this way using food consumption data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS) 2007-2010, a lower and more realistic exposure estimate for E150 was obtained for the adult population aged 17-30 years compared with a recent EFSA exposure assessment. For children aged 2-6 years (DNFCS-young children), the exposure estimate was comparable to that obtained by EFSA.

Conclusion: The cooperation between risk managers, exposure assessors and the food industry results in a win-win-situation for all parties by 1) providing a cost-effective approach for risk managers, 2) providing exposure assessors a reliable and representative data set and 3) providing a realistic estimate, which is important for both the government and the industry. The monitoring system may be used to assess exposure levels of additives and flavorings in other European Member States. It is recommended to explore the use of the monitoring system in the other Member States.

 

The complete report can be downloaded for free from:

 

http://www.rivm.nl/en/Documents_and_publications/Scientific/Reports/2014/mei/Refined_exposure
_assessment_of_E150_food_colours_with_use_levels_provided_by_the_industry?sp=cXVlcnk9KE
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ocmFuZ2U9NTA7c2VhcmNoZXhwcmVzc2lvbj1TSVRFTEFOR1VBR0UgQU5EIElOTElCUkFSWSB
BTkQgU0lURUxBTkdVQUdFO3NvcnRmaWVsZD1wdWJsaXNoZGF0ZTtzb3J0cmV2ZXJzZWQ9d
HJ1ZTs=&query=E150&pagenr=1&result=rivmp%3A247860

 

Full report is also available as ‘Supplementary File’.

Open Access Grey Literature

How to Apply the Novel Foods Regulation

Patrick Coppens, Efi Leontopoulou

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 55-57
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2016/22232

The European Union (EU) Novel Foods Regulation 258/97 was adopted in 1997 and is applicable still today until the revision currently undertaken will be adopted. Over time the scope and application of this legislation have evolved.

This report gives a detailed insight into the way this legislation has been implemented and applied in practice. It provides background and guidance for a number of issues companies are likely to encounter when they intend to submit an application. It covers the scope of the law and helps to clarify when a food or food ingredient would be covered and when not, and which elements should be considered when collecting evidence for the non-novel status (Chapter 1).

It guides the reader through the process of how to submit an application in either of the two procedures for authorization (Chapter 2) and provides guidance on the scientific elements that need to be considered when compiling a novel food application (Chapter 3). The report also addresses the revision of the law currently being undertaken, and highlights the main changes that are expected and the consequences that will arise from these modifications for current and future submissions (Chapter 4). Finally, the report provides answers to some of the most frequently asked questions relating to novel food applications (Chapter 5). The report has been on sale from 2009-2012. It has now been made available for general reference.

Open Access Short communication

Selenium in Healthy Individuals in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

Lourdes Zélia Zanoni, Petr Melnikov, Tassianny Heredia Finotti, Fernanda Zanoni Cônsolo, Anderson Fernandes da Silva, Valter Aragão do Nascimento

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 36-40
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2016/20003

The aim of the present research was to assess plasma selenium concentrations in healthy individuals, in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, as part of the mapping of the Brazilians states. Selenium levels were measured in 342 healthy individuals, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average plasma selenium concentration in this study was 65±20 μg/L (mean±SD; range 21– 144 μg/L), the lowest in comparison to other Brazilian states. The predictor variables, such as gender, ethnicity, blood type or body mass index do not correlate with plasma selenium concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Consumption of a Nopal Cactus Fruit Juice on C-Reactive Protein Levels in Healthy Adults: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Clinical Pilot Study

Gitte S. Jensen

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2016/18218

The Nopal cactus grows widespread in many parts of the world, and in some areas is considered a noxious weed. In addition to the use of the stems and leaves (also called pads or cladodes) and fruits (prickly pears) as food, Nopal has a long use in traditional folk medicine. The fruit shares some constituents with the stems, and contains additional unique polyphenols and betalain pigments with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. A randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm human study was performed to compare consumption of Nopal fruit juice (NFJ) to control (apricot) juice. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and uric acid were measured at baseline and after 8 and 12 weeks. Reduced CRP levels were seen in both the NFJ and control groups. The 21.0% reduction at 8 weeks in the NFJ group was significantly more robust than the 6.6% reduction in the control group (P <.05). The reduced CRP level within the NFJ group was highly significant at 8 weeks (P <.0001), and remained reduced by 10.6% at 12 weeks compared to baseline (P <.065). The CRP reduction was not significant within the control group. There was no significant difference in uric acid levels between the groups at either 8 or 12 weeks. The 5.2% increase in uric acid levels within the control group was highly significant at 8 weeks (P <.0003), remaining significant at 12 weeks (P <.04). In contrast, a transient 3.6% increase in uric acid in the NFJ group at 8 weeks (P <.02) returned almost back to baseline levels at 12 weeks. Consumption of NFJ was associated with significant reduction in the CRP inflammatory biomarker while maintaining uric acid well within healthy range.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dairy Calcium Supplementation on Adiposity Plasma Leptin and Glucose in Obese Postmenopausal Women

Dina H. Fakhrawi, Carol J. Lammi-Keefe, W. Lawrence Beeson, T. Allan Darnell, Anthony Firek, Zaida R. Cordero-MacIntyre

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 43-54
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2016/18495

The inclusion of low or non-fat dairy products which additional calcium in the diet may promote increased weight loss and improve insulin resistance. Therefore supplementing dairy products to obese subjects on a caloric restricted diet may be a useful strategy to enhance weight loss and improve insulin resistance. We therefore tested the short term effects of supplementing 56 overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] >26 kg/m2) post menopausal women on a caloric restricted diet (1,400 kilocalories [kcal]) with two levels of dairy as yogurt on body composition, blood insulin, leptin and glucose concentration. The group consuming four supplemented dairy servings (DS-4) group were provided ~1400 mg Ca/day, and the group consuming two supplemented dairy servings (DS-2) were provided ~800 mg Ca/day.

Over the 3-months daily energy intake averaged 51% carbohydrate, 20.7% of protein and 27.6% of fat for both groups. At 3 months, the DS-4 group demonstrated decreased weight (87.7 to 86.2 kg, P=0.001), BMI (33.5 to 32.8 kg/m2, P < 0.001), total fat (36.1 to 34.7 kg, P<0.001), trunk fat (18.3 to 17.6 kg, P < 0.001). There were non-significant decreases in plasma glucose (74.7 to 71.1 mg/dl, P=0.494), leptin (32.5 to 31.3 µg/L, P=0.231) and insulin. For the DS-2 group there was decreased weight (86.4 to 84.4 kg, p<0.02), BMI (32.5 to 31.8 kg/m2, P=0.002), total fat (37.3 to 35.4 kg, P=0.003), trunk fat (17.1 to 16.5 kg, P = 0.27) and plasma leptin (27.8 to 25.2 µg/L, P=0.114). The DS-2 group demonstrated a surprising and significant increase in the fasting blood glucose with a marginal significant increase in insulin resistance as measured by HOMA at 3 months. We observed a significant treatment effect between the DS-2 and DS-4 groups for: % energy from fat (P=0.025), % energy from protein (P=0.047) and leptin (P=0.044).

Our study demonstrated the expected weight loss with caloric restriction but a paradoxical increase in blood glucose levels with dairy supplementation provided to maintain baseline calcium intake. Increasing dairy supplementation abrogated this small increase in fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance. The benefits of dairy calcium supplementation may be dependent on both the dose and the context of over all caloric intake.

Open Access Review Article

Supplements in the European Union: An Analysis of Health Claims Related to Articular Joint Health

Madalena Bettencourt-Câmara, Bruno Sepodes, Rosário Bronze, Maria-Eduardo Figueira

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 12-35
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2016/19031

In the European Union, amino acids, enzymes, pre- and probiotics, essential fatty acids, botanicals and botanical extracts and miscellaneous bioactive substances can be marketed as food supplements (FS). Food supplements that are meant to benefit human health contain claims on their label stating their benefits. Since 2007, health claims made on FS, are prohibited unless they are authorized and included in the EU Register of Nutrition and Health Claims on Food (the EU Register), in accordance with the requirements of Regulation (EC) nº 1924/2006.

Aims: This manuscript reviews the evidence required to support health claims made on FS considering the legal framework of these foodstuffs and, as a case study, analyses the health claims on articular joint health included in the EU Register. The EFSA scientific opinions related to those health claims have also been considered. In EU, some botanicals and miscellaneous bioactive substances can be marketed as medicinal or as food supplements. The regulatory issues on botanicals and the debate on how to create a regulatory framework for botanicals is mentioned.

Results: By April 2015, 77 functional health claims on joints health were included in the EU Register. The status of all these claims was non-authorised. The great majority were Article 13.1 claims (91%). All functional claims related to articular joints function were made on target functional ingredients, mainly other substances that could be used in the manufacturing of FS. Human trials conducted in diseased population were the main statement from EFSA for the non-approval of the health claims on articular joints. Criteria and more guidance addressing methodological issues on human trials would benefit future applications and scientific research.

Conclusion: Legal issues regarding other substances than vitamins and minerals, namely botanical ingredients should also be taken in account in future FS health claims on articular joints. On this subject, efforts to improve the existing regulatory framework, namely with regard to botanicals products could also benefit future FS health claims.