Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Compounds and Bioactive Properties of Sorghum-cowpea-based Food Subjected to an In vitro Digestion Model

Oluyemisi E. Adelakun, Gyebi Duodu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 57-66
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/20310

This work identified and quantified some phenolics compound in sorghum-cowpea porridge after subjection to in vitro digestion. Flours, porridge and digested porridge were analysed for total phenolics, total flavonoids, ABTS-radical scavenging capacity and specific phenolic acids and flavonoids. Total phenolics and flavonoid content of the gastric (346.1 µg CE/g; 35.2 µg CE/g) and intestinal phase digest (1389.8 µg CE/g; 142.6 µg CE/g) were lower than the composite flour (2720.1 µg CE/g; 220.9 µg CE/g) and while its porridge were (1218.4 µg CE/g; 173.8 µg CE/g). The ABTS-radical scavenging capacity of all samples ranged from 21.0 – 507.3 µg TE/g. The gastric phase and intestinal phase digests maintained 4.7% and 58.3% of the radical scavenging capacity of the porridge. Catechin and gallic acid were lower in the intestinal digest (2760.0 µg/g; 226.7 µg/g) than the undigested porridge (4188.3 µg/g; 193.9 µg/g). Sorghum-cowpea composite porridge contains phenolic antioxidants even after gastric and intestinal digestion with potential to significantly impact human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anemia during Pregnancy; How much is Known? A Case of Moshi Town in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Rogate Ndosi, Jaffu Chilongola, Edith Kwigizile

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 67-76
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/29972

Aims: Knowledge and practices of both men and women on factors that contribute to anemia in pregnancy needs to determined if sound and successful measures to prevent pregnancy anemia are to be implemented. This study was designed to understand knowledge, practices and attitudes of pregnant women and men on anemia during pregnancy.

Study Design: This was a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Moshi town, in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania between January and May, 2012 in 4 health centers.

Methodology: A total of 64 participants were enrolled, involving 44 pregnant women, 11 in each study centre, 18-45 years old, and 20 married men, 5 in each center attending health care services. A structured, ‘close ended question’ questionnaire was used for data capturing after it was pre-tested. Participants were asked questions and responses were recorded by the investigator. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0) in which mainly descriptive statistics was used. 

Results: Approximately 82% (n=36) of women were spending ≤ 60 minutes to reach the ANC, majority (68.2%, n=30) incurring less than Tanzanian Shillings (TAS) 1,000 per visit while 13.6% (n=6) were parting with more than TAS 2,000 per visit. Compliance to required 4 antenatal clinics (ANC) visits was high by 93.2% (n=41) with a mean gestation age at first visit at 18th week. Causes of anemia were known by 93.8% (n=42), with 79.7%, 96.2%, 80.8% and 67.4% having good knowledge on malaria as a cause of anemia, foods and medications that prevent anemia and cut-off hemoglobin level for anemia, respectively. Knowledge on effects of anemia on birth outcomes was poor with 17 (26.6%) with adequate knowledge.

Conclusion: Although ANC services are very accessible in the study area and pregnant women keep ANC visits, we report presence of inadequate knowledge on anemia in pregnancy, particularly effects on birth outcomes. Strengthened training and increased scope of education on reproductive health in general during ANC clinics should be prioritized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Fermented Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder

Harimalala Andriambelo Nirina, Rasoarinanahary Miora, Porphyre Vincent, Hiol Abel, Remize Fabienne, Razanamparany Louisette

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 77-83
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/29627

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lactic fermentation of Moringa oleifera leaf powder at young and mature stage of development. This is to improve the organoleptic quality of Moringa oleifera leaf powder. The work was performed in the laboratory of high School of Engineering of La Reunion. The fermentation was performed by Lactobacillus plantarum (DSM 2601) and Weissella cibaria (27A) inoculated at 106 CFU / g. The fermentation was performed at 25°C over 5 days. An acidification of fermented products (4 < final pH < 5), a high protein content in mature leaves fermented over 120 hours (T120-Ma), or over 48 h (T48-Ma), by Weissella cibaria, a high protein content in mature leaves fermented over 120 h (T120-Ma) and in young leaves fermented over 120 h (T120-I) by Lactobacillus plantarum was observed. The results of ANOVA on fermentation by Weissella cibaria (27A) and Lactobacillus plantarum (DMS 2601) on the nutritional leaves of Moringa oleifera, showed there was no significant effect on the α=0,05 fermentation times and stage of leaves maturity for contents of reducing sugar and proteins. But there is a significant effect of fermentation and maturation stage leaves on the pH of the product threshold at α=0.05. The fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum (DMS 2601) showed there was an effect of the fermentation time on the content of phenolic compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there is a negative correlation between the protein content and the content of phenolic compounds. By the fermentation process, the organoleptic characteristics of the Moringa oleifera leaves powders whose color is to be improved, which is an asset in the process of incorporation of Moringa oleifera. Lactic fermentation of Moringa oleifera leaves is a method of increasing protein intake of the food and the fight against PEM target populations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction and Concentration of Bioactive Compounds of Cola nitida Using Membrane Processes: Analysis of Operating Parameters and Membrane Fouling

Yves Nyamien, Marie-Pierre Belleville, Adama Coulibaly, Augustin Adima, Godi Henri Biego

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 84-100
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/34857

Aims: Kola nut is a natural product that is rich in biological active compounds. This work was aimed at evaluating the potential of an integrated system based on the combination of membrane processes for the purification and concentration of kola extract bioactive compounds.

Place and Duration of Study: Mature kola seeds were collected in October 2014-February 2015 in South of Côte d’Ivoire and the membranes performances were carried out from May to November 2016 at the European Institute of Membranes, France.

Methodology: Kola extract obtained by ethanol-water mixture were clarified by Microfiltration (0.2 µm) and Ultrafiltration (5, 15 and 50 kDa). The choice of ultrafiltration membrane was carried out on a pseudo-tangential pilot and membranes chosen are characterized and validated on a tangential filtration pilot before the concentration of the extracts by nanofiltration (200-400 Da). The effect of crossflow velocity and transmembrane pressure was performed in recycle mode for each membrane. Fractions coming from the membrane processes were analyzed for their content in total polyphenols, proteins, caffeine, catechin and epicatechin.

Results: Microfiltration (0.2 µm) coupled with ultrafiltration (50 kDa) produced the purified extract and was submitted to a nanofiltration process to produce a concentrated fraction enriched in active compounds such as polyphenols and caffeine. Permeate flux significantly decreased with time until a steady-state was established due to the membrane fouling. The high retention of proteins in microfiltration (35.71%) and ultrafiltration (35.29%) favors a purity gain of the compounds of interest suh as total polyphenols, caffeine and catechin. However, there is a loss of total polyphenols during ultrafiltration step due to its high retention (29.17%). This result in a low concentration factor in the final retentate (2.56) during the coupling of microfiltration/ ultrafiltration/nanofiltration compared to that observed during the direct concentration of the crude extract (4.27). The opposite is observed for caffeine, catechin and epicatechin.

Conclusion: The membrane processes favor the purification and concentration of the bioactive compounds of Cola nitida nuts. However, the ultrafiltration step has the disadvantage of retaining a high proportion of polyphenols and therefore of reducing the antioxidant capacity of the final product.

Open Access Review Article

Overview of Elements within National Food-Based Dietary Guidelines

Erve, I. van ‘t, Tulen, C. B. M., Jansen, J., Laar, A. D. E. van, Minnema, R., Schenk, P. R., Wolvers, D., Rossum, C. T. M. van, Verhagen, H.

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-56
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2016/32645

Background: Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) serve as an approach to provide dietary and lifestyle information with the ultimate goal to contribute to public health. Recommendations for the development and implementation of FBDG are given by the EFSA and the WHO/FAO. An overview of the currently present FBDG and used elements in FBDG is lacking.

Aim: The aims of this study were (1) to provide an overview of all official FBDG that are currently present for the general healthy population, and (2) to get insight in the elements and visual approaches used in these guidelines.

Methodology: A comprehensive internet search was performed to analyse the presence of official FBDG in a total of 226 countries worldwide. Both information content and visual representation of FBDG were reviewed using descriptive statistics.

Results: FBDG were found for 93 out of 226 countries, of which 79 FBDG included a visual representation. Representations of six or seven food groups in FBDG were most common. In 61% of FBDG, cereals were the most prominent food group representing the highest relative amount of food to be eaten. Hierarchical models, such as pyramids, were used about as frequently as non-hierarchical models, such as plates. The lifestyle factor “exercise” was mentioned in 85% of FBDG. Non-caloric beverages and exercise were present in the visual representation in 48% and 46% of FBDG, respectively.

Conclusion: 41% of the analysed countries had a national FBDG. Most FBDG included a visual representation, consisted of six or seven food groups and made use of graphic design aspects like colour. FBDG considerably differed regarding the food groups that were represented and graphic design aspects, like hierarchy and shape.