Open Access Grey Literature

Consensus Summit: Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population

K. K. Akinroye, Y. A. Olukosi, T. Atinmo, O. Omueti, C. F. Babasola, O. Idigbe, A. Isah, C. O. Isokpunwu, O. Mobolaji-Lawal, A. Nasidi, O. J. Odia, O. B. Ogunmoyela, O. Okojie, B. J. C. Onwubere, A. Osibogun, R. Schilpzand, O. O. Akinkugbe

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 109-119
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/32036

Aims: To issue a consensus statement on Lipids and Cardiovascular Health and the impact of their interrelationship in Nigerian Population.

Study Design: Experts from a range of relevant disciplines, deliberated on different aspects of Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population at a Summit.

Place and Duration of Study: The Summit was held in April 2016 at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research.

Methodology: Presentations were made on central themes after which expert participants split into four different groups to consider the questions relevant to different sub themes of the title. Consensus was arrived at, from presentations of groups at plenary.

Conclusion: With the increase in the prevalence of NCDs, especially Cardiovascular Disease in Nigeria, and the documented evidence of deleterious effects of lipids, the expert panel called for an urgent need to advocate for the general public and health professionals to make heart-friendly choices in food consumption.

Open Access Grey Literature

The Nordic Monitoring of Diet, Physical Activity, Smoking, Alcohol and Overweight: 2011-2014

Jeppe Matthiessen, Lene Frost Andersen, Heléne Enghardt Barbieri, Katja Borodulin, Vibeke Kildegaard Knudsen, Karsten Kørup, Holmfridur Thorgeirsdottir, Ellen Trolle, Sisse Fagt

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 128-130
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/35072

Background: The Nordic Plan of Action for better health and quality of life has been put forward by the Nordic Council of Ministers with the aim of reducing unhealthy lifestyles and overweight in the Nordic countries. Monitoring of health behaviour and overweight in the Nordic region is an important element in the plan. Two data collections have been carried out and this report describes status and trends from 2011 to 2014 in diet, physical activity and overweight among children and adults in the Nordic region.


Aims: The aims of the Nordic Monitoring System are to provide status and temporal trend data of diet, physical activity and overweight among children and adults in the Nordic region. Furthermore, to compare results between the Nordic countries and to evaluate diet and physical activity with current recommendations, and to examine social inequality in health behaviour and overweight. The results are evaluated against Goals 2011 and Visions 2021 set by the Nordic Plan of Action.

Methods: Data on diet, physical activity, overweight and socio-demographics have been collected in the autumn of 2011 and 2014. In 2014, data on alcohol and smoking among adults have been included as well. Data comprised simple random samples of 2479 and 2470 children (7–12 y) and 9153 and 8595  adults (18–65 y) drawn in 2011 and 2014, respectively, from the national registers in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The pooled participation rate among adults in the Nordic countries was 40% in 2011 and 32% in 2014 and among children 45% in both survey years. Data were collected by telephone interviews based on a short questionnaire with validated indicator questions about dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire), physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and weight and height. A parent responded for their child in the telephone interview. Key variables have been used to report the current level and trends in health behaviour and overweight in the Nordic region between 2011 and 2014, i.e. unhealthy diet (low diet quality score for frequency of intake of fruits and vegetables, fish, whole grain bread, and foods rich in saturated fat or added sugar), physical inactivity, high recreational screen time (> 4 h/day), smoking (adults in 2014), daily smoking (adults in 2014), mean total alcohol consumption (adults in 2014), binge drinking during last month (adults in 2014), overweight (including obesity), and obesity. All data were weighted according to gender, age, educational level and population size to reflect the general populations in the Nordic region. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (t-tests and chi-square tests, p<0.05).


Results: In 2014, a high prevalence of unhealthy diet (7-12 y: 15.6% and 18-65 y: 21.4%), physical inactivity (7-12 y: 59.1% and 18-65 y: 33.6%), high recreational screen time (7-12 y: 15.5% and 18-65 y: 30.0%), overweight (7-12 y: 15.4% and 18-65 y: 46.7%), obesity (7-12 y: 3.2% and 18-65 y: 12.7%), smoking (18-65 y: 20.8%), daily smoking (18-65 y: 14.8%) and binge drinking during last month (18-65 y: 45.0%) were found among children and adults in the Nordic region. A high mean total alcohol consumption (18-65 y: 1.7 freq./wk) was also found. Results show that statistically significant changes have occurred in the Nordic region from 2011 to 2014, albeit some are modest in magnitude. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly among adults from 2011 to 2014 (from 11.4% to 12.7%). The proportion of adults with an unhealthy diet (from 18.2% to 21.5%) and with high recreational screen time (from 28.6% to 30.0%) increased significantly in the Nordic region. The increasing proportion with an unhealthy diet was mainly due to a decreasing frequency of intake of fish and wholegrain bread and an increasing intake of saturated fat. Among children in the Nordic region no changes in the overall diet, physical activity and overweight were found between 2011 and 2014. Social inequality in diet, physical activity and overweight was pronounced among adults in the Nordic region and did not change across the survey years. In children, we found a large relative social difference in diet that appeared more pronounced in 2014 than in 2011, a moderate and decreasing difference in overweight, and a small and unchanged difference in physical activity. Overall, trends in adults have mainly been unfavourable or unchanged in the five Nordic countries, while trends have mainly been unchanged or favourable in children. This is reflected in the evaluation of the results in relation to Goals 2011 and Visions 2021 in the Nordic Plan of Action where Goals 2011 aim at favourable trends in diet, physical activity and overweight, while Visions 2021 aim at reaching a certain population level in year 2021. Four in ten of the goals and one in ten of the visions have been fulfilled among adults, while seven in ten of the goals and three in ten of the visions have been fulfilled among children. Each of the five Nordic countries experiences public health challenges: Denmark is challenged with smoking and alcohol behaviour among adults. Sedentary behaviour may be an increasing challenge among adults in Finland where screen time is on the rise. The prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity indicate that this is a major public health challenge among adults in Iceland. The high proportion of physically inactive adults in Norway is of concern. Finally, the increasing proportion with an unhealthy diet among adults in Sweden is also of concern. In addition, the high proportion of inactive children in Sweden is worrying from a public health perspective.


Conclusion: The Nordic region experienced an increase in unhealthy dietary habits, high recreational screen time and obesity prevalence among adults between 2011 and 2014. Among children, the picture is more optimistic; however, there is still room for improvement as unhealthy lifestyles and overweight are highly prevalent among children and adults in the Nordic region. Groups like men, 45–65-y-olds, and individuals with low education may be relevant to target to fulfil the common Nordic ambition of ensuring better health and quality of life on equal terms for all Nordic citizens.

The complete report can be downloaded for free from:


Full report is also available as ‘Supplementary File’.

Open Access Minireview Article

Why Nutritional Knowledge May Not Influence Dietary Behaviour

Osinachi Akanwa Ekeagwu

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 101-108
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/34745

Despite the increasing reliance on nutritional knowledge by health campaigns, research investigating its correlation with dietary behaviour continues to generate conflicting findings. The reason for this variation may not be sufficiently explainable by sociodemographic differences between study subjects. Instead, it has largely arisen due to limited understanding and poor application of the subject- nutritional knowledge with regards to its domains, forms and level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Status of Some Antioxidant Micronutrient and Pregnancy Outcomes in Ghanaian Adolescents Attending Antenatal Clinic in Urban (Suntreso) and Rural (Mampong) Hospitals

Jessica Ayensu, Anthony Edusei, Ibok Oduro, Christopher Larbie

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 120-127
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/24209

Aims: Antioxidants are important in maintaining cellular function in normal pregnancy and are needed for mitigating the effects of oxidative stress. However, there is paucity of information on the importance of antioxidants in pregnant adolescents. This study was therefore aimed at assessing maternal antioxidant micronutrient status and its impact on pregnancy outcomes in Ghanaian pregnant adolescents.

Study Design: Prospective Cohort study.

Place and Duration of Study: Mampong and Suntreso Government hospitals in the Ashanti Region of Ghana between March and November 2014.

Methodology: We included 100 pregnant adolescents aged 11 to 19 years. Two 24 hr recall sessions were used to assess dietary antioxidant micronutrient (Vitamin A, E, C, Zinc and Selenium) intakes of study participants. Biochemical status was assessed by measurement of serum Vitamin A, zinc and selenium using standardized methods. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from hospital records after parturition.

Results: The mean intakes of Vitamin A (246.86±26.80 mcg/d), E (7.32±0.46 mg/d) and zinc (7.56±0.42 mg/d) of participants during the study were below the RDA for the nutrients. The mean serum concentrations of Vitamin A (22.64±1.78 µg/dl) and zinc (137.43±25.27) were found to be higher than reference values. However, with a mean concentration of 63.20±13.58 µg/dl, serum selenium deficiency was observed in 74% of the participants. The mean birth weight and gestational age of the study population was 2.89±0.05 kg and 38.23±1.06 weeks, respectively (for 43 participants). Twenty-three percent (23%) of the babies were born with low birth weight. Further statistical analysis revealed no association between the antioxidant micronutrient status and birth weight and gestation age.

Conclusion: No association was found between the antioxidant micronutrient status and pregnancy outcomes among Ghanaian pregnant adolescents. However, larger epidemiological studies and intervention trials are required to reinforce or refute the beneficial role of antioxidant micronutrient on pregnancy outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Natural Antioxidants Extracted from Simarouba glauca and Radermachera xylocarpa Deoiled Seed Cakes on the Oxidative Stability of Soybean Oil during Accelerated Storage

Bollampalli Anjaneyulu, Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng, Shiva Shanker Kaki, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi Karuna, Enti Anjaneyulu, Bhamidipati Venkata Surya Koppeswara Rao, Vidavalur Siddaiah, Sanjit Kanjilal, Hilaire Macaire Womeni

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 131-143
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/32175

Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of Deoiled seed cakes extracts of Simarouba glauca and Radermachera xylocarpa toward oxidation of soybean oil during accelerated storage.

Study Design: Seeds harvesting, oil extraction, natural antioxidants extraction from deoiled cakes, supplementation of soybean oil with the extract and evaluation of its oil stability during accelerated storages.

Place and Duration of Study: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad, India, from July 2015 to December 2015.

Methodology: Oils were extracted from the seeds on a Soxhlet apparatus. Deoiled cakes were then extracted with methanol. The obtained extract was used for phytochemical analysis, by colorimetry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After preliminary antioxidant tests, the extracts were respectively added in soybean oil at concentrations 200-1800 ppm. Oil containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and oil without antioxidants served as positive and negative controls respectively. The oxidative stability of these oil samples was evaluated by Rancimat and Schaal oven tests under forced storage conditions and measurement of oxidation parameters.

Results: The outcomes showed the total phenolic contents to be 19.22 and 9.87 mg GAE/g for Simarouba glauca (SG) and Radermachera xylocarpa (RX) respectively. Quercetine, Vanillic, caffeic, ferulic acids were the phenolic antioxidants detected in RX, while gallic acid and vanillic acid were those detected in SG. The induction times of soybean oil supplemented with the extracts of SG and RX were found to be in the range of 5.08-6.28 and 5.87-6.55 h respectively. Those of oil without antioxidant and oil supplemented with BHT were 4.84±0.03 and 6.42±0.12 h respectively. The extracts, at all concentrations, were efficient like BHT in delaying soybean oil oxidation during 21 days of storage at 65°C.

Conclusion: These extracts are viable sources of natural antioxidants for stabilization of soybean oil.