Open Access Short Research Article

Examination of Acrylamide in Milk Samples with Different Types of Additives Using Spectrophotometry Method

Julijana Tomovska, Suzana Stojanovska, Jasmina Tasevska, Aleksandar Krstanovski, Mirjana Menkovska

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 171-178
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/35628

Considering that through the beverages with different types of additives, the adult population is exposed to an acrylamide influence on a daily basis, up to 374 ng/g in unbrewed coffee grounds and 818 µg/kg in coffee substitutes, the aim of this research is to examine and determine if certain amount of acrylamide present in additives like coffee, cocoa and coffee substitutes, migrates in milk and results with a dairy product unsafe for human consumption. A method based upon redox reaction of acrylamide with potassium permanganate was utilized for acrylamide determination in this research. Starting with a range from 129.58 µg/l in a homogenized, up to 144.95 µg/l in pasteurized milk, and the lowest value of 13.42 µg/l in chocolate milk (which already contains cocoa/chocolate) these numbers indicate on highest acrylamide values in milk samples where instant coffee is added. Examinations present the facts about milk functionality and its high biological and nutritional value, which could be deprived by adding different types of additives.

Open Access Minireview Article

Neurological Impact of Zinc Excess and Deficiency In vivo

Ronald Bartzatt

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 155-160
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/35783

Zinc is an essential mineral that can cause pathological effects whether in excess or deficiency.  Zinc is a component for over 250 enzymes and is required for cell growth, cell division, and cell function. Zinc is found in muscle and bones, with the prostrate, liver, skin, and kidney having detectable levels of zinc. However, zinc present in excess or deficiency can cause significant pathology in patients that include deleterious effects neurologically. Zinc in excess in vivo can cause focal neuronal pathology, while zinc deficiency can bring about mental lethargy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and reduced nerve conduction. Zinc is assimilated within the body by oral ingestion, dermal exposure, and pulmonary inhalation. Although not generally viewed as a cause of cancer, studies suggest that zinc is associated with progression of prostate malignancy. Toxic levels of zinc have been shown to induce lethargy, neurotoxicity, and gliotoxicity. High levels of zinc causes neuronal death in cortical cell tissue culture. Zinc is known to accumulate following the death of neurons in global ischemia. Therefore, zinc deficiency or excess is of significant clinical concern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Green Tea Leaves Methanolic Extract in Stabilizing Refined, Bleached and Deodorized Palm Olein during Storage at Frying Temperature

Fabrice Tonfack Djikeng, Hilaire Macaire Womeni, Enti Anjaneyulu, Gires Teboukeu Boungo, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi Karuna, Rachapudi Badari Narayana Prasad, Michel Linder

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 144-154
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/34993

Aims: The present study was performed in order to test the effect of different concentrations of tea leaves methanolic extracts on the oxidative stability of palm olein subjected at frying temperature.

Study Design: Harvesting of fresh tea leaves, cleaning and drying, extraction of natural antioxidants, supplementation of refined palm olein with the extract and evaluation of its stability during storage at frying temperature (180 ± 5°C).

Place and Duration of Study: University of Dschang, Cameroon and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad, India, from July 2015 to December 2015.

Methodology: The natural antioxidants were extracted by macerating dried green tea leaves in methanol. The concentrated extract was then added in refined palm olein without additives at concentrations 200, 600, 1000, 1400 and 1800 ppm respectively. Oil containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and oil without antioxidants served as positive and negative controls respectively. The oil samples were then stored in the oven at 180°C for 6 consecutive days (4 hours heating/day). After every two days of heating, oil samples were collected and various chemical parameters (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid value and iodine value were measured) and instrumental techniques (Gas-chromatography) were used to test the oil deterioration that permit the distinction of oxidative alteration level during storage.

Results: Quantitative measurements revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher rate of oxidative alteration level in Control and PO+BHT200ppm (palm olein supplemented with butyl hydroxytoluene) during the storage compared to oil samples containing tea leaves extract as natural antioxidant. At all concentrations, tea extract was very efficient than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). It was also the best in delaying linoleic acid degradation during the process.

Conclusion: From these results, it can be concluded that green tea leaves are rich in natural antioxidants of good thermal stability, which can be exploited to delay the oxidation of palm olein during processing at high temperature and during storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

IEC (Information Education Communication) Module as an Effective Tool for Mitigation of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Rural Adolescent Girls of Tarai Region of Uttarakhand, India

Anuradha Dutta, Pushpa Shukla, Soni Tilara, Nivedita ., Raushan Khan, Neha Tiwari, Priyanka Singhal, Nidhi Budhlakoti

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 161-170
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/35745

Aim: The present study was planned to assess the effectiveness of Information, Education, Communication module in reducing the incidence of anaemia among rural adolescent girls by bringing about a change in their knowledge attitude and practices related to this nutritional deficiency disease.

Study Design: Concurrent parallel study design.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Science, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, between November, 2015 to October, 2016.

Methodology: A total of 288 rural adolescent girls of government schools in the age between 13-16 years were taken for the study. Subjects were divided in 2 groups: experimental group (exposed to IEC) and control group (not exposed to IEC), each having144 girls each. Haemoglobin levels and knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) scores were recorded using haemoglobin meter and questionnaire respectively, before and after IEC programme in both the groups. Paired-t test and z test were applied to compare changes before and after the intervention in haemoglobin level and knowledge, attitude and practices scores of the adolescent girls.

Results: Improvement in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the subjects in experimental group was observed (increase of 18.93 percent in knowledge, 6.79 percent increase in attitude and 4.51 percent increase in practice score), though statistical significance could not be established. Favourable effect of IEC programme on haemoglobin levels of the experimental group was evident as the proportion of subjects having normal haemoglobin levels increased significantly from 0 to 27.08 percent, moderate anaemia was decreased from 30.55 percent to 11.11 percent post IEC programme, while in control group no significant changes were observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of UNICEF Multiple Micronutrient Powder on Child Stunting Rate and Influencing Factors in Kisangani

F. Lusamaki Mukunda, E. Tebandite Kasai, J. Alworonga Opara, J. Posho Ikolonga, S. Batina Agasa, A. Kayisu Kalenga, J. Ntokamunda Kadima

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 179-188
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/36276

Home fortification of foods with Multiple Micronutrient has been proposed to maintain normal growing and health of children living in chronic malnutrition conditions. In December 2014, the National Nutrition Programme, in partnership with UNICEF, introduced multiple micronutrient powder as food supplement for children aged 6 to 23 months in DR Congo to prevent negative impact of chronic malnutrition. This intervention was conducted in some municipalities in Kisangani city. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of that intervention to reduce at short term the rate of stunting and measure a possible impact of socio-demographic factors. This was a community based prospective cross-sectional survey conducted from April 14 to June 13, 2016. The prevalence of stunted children was compared among children aged 24-36 months in areas where the programme was administered and those living in areas where the intervention was not yet applied and between children treated and not treated in a same municipality. Two health zones, Mangobo representing areas where the intervention was conducted and Lubunga representing areas without intervention were selected. Three groups were constituted: (i) Mangobo-children who received the powder, (ii) Mangobo-children not given the powder and Lubunga- children not given the powder. The effectiveness indicator was the prevalence of stunted children in treated and untreated children. The stunting prevalence was 36.2% in group (i), 74.1% in group (ii), and 54.1% in group (iii). The global stunting rate was 49.5% for the entire population independently of the intervention. The difference was significant between untreated and treated children (p=0.001). Stunting was significantly higher among boys than girls and among children whose mothers were uneducated. The use of the multiple micronutrient powder showed some benefits in reducing stunting at short term. But to effectively solve the problem of chronic malnutrition, the strategies should address globally different causes including socio-economic assets of the family, food quality, maternal nutrition, sanitation and mothers’ education.