European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety,
Nowadays the role of vitamin D is not only known to be limited to the maintenance of the bone health, but also to the reduction of the risk for development of many chronic diseases including autoimmune, cardiovascular, as well as various oncological diseases.
Aim of the work: To identify sources of vitamin D, as well as prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in aging men with the increased risk of prostate cancer.
Methods: The present case–control study included 252 respondents - men between 45-80 years of age, whose weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) was calculated, as well as both serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and vitamin D (25 (OH) D) were determined. The study participants were divided into three groups: the first group consisted of men with PSA serum level <4.0 ng/mL, the second group with PSA >4.0-10.0 ng/mL, the third - PSA>10.0 ng/mL. We used the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) to evaluate the symptoms, along with the physical examination (including a digital rectal exam or DRE). In the study group with reading of PSA> 4.0 ng/mL prostate biopsy was performed to determine the study participants with prostate cancer. Gleason score was used for the evaluation of prostate cancer malignity grade.
Statistical Analysis: The statistical processing of the obtained results was carried out by means of the parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. The statistical descriptive method also included the determination of the mean arithmetic mean (M), mean values (m), for normal symptoms. The t-test and variance analysis were used for the present study, and the relationship between two or more variables was found using linear correlation and regression methods. Pearson's correlation coefficient “r” test was calculated between PSA, IPSS and 25(OH)D, continuous variables. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: 252 men were included in the present study, the mean age 59 ±7.9, the mean PSA level 4.3±0.42, BMI 28.4±0.25, IPSS 12±0.64, 25(OH)D 17.5±0.47. PSA <4.0, the mean 25(OH)D serum level was 19.95±6.87, PSA 4-10, 25(OH)D 14.31±7.43, PSA >10, 25(OH)D-11.46±3.50. However, the correlation between IPSS and Vitamin D using Pearson's correlation was statistically insignificant (r = 0.05 p<0.001).
Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common in males with the increased risk of developing prostate cancer. The increase in PSA levels correlates with the lower vitamin D levels, as well as correlation between 25(OH)D serum level and increased prostate cancer risk was also found.