Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamin D [25(OH)D] Deficiency Patients in Prostate Cancer in Latvia

Anastasia Sitova, Olga Voika, Zigurds Zariņš

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 189-198
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/36516

Nowadays the role of vitamin D is not only known to be limited to the maintenance of the bone health, but also to the reduction of the risk for development of many chronic diseases including autoimmune, cardiovascular, as well as various oncological diseases.

Aim of the work: To identify sources of vitamin D, as well as prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in aging men with the increased risk of prostate cancer.

Methods: The present case–control study included 252 respondents - men between 45-80 years of age, whose weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) was calculated, as well as both serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and vitamin D (25 (OH) D) were determined. The study participants were divided into three groups: the first group consisted of men with PSA serum level <4.0 ng/mL, the second group with PSA >4.0-10.0 ng/mL, the third - PSA>10.0 ng/mL. We used the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) to evaluate the symptoms, along with the physical examination (including a digital rectal exam or DRE). In the study group with reading of PSA> 4.0 ng/mL prostate biopsy was performed to determine the study participants with prostate cancer. Gleason score was used for the evaluation of prostate cancer malignity grade.

Statistical Analysis: The statistical processing of the obtained results was carried out by means of  the parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. The statistical descriptive method also included the determination of the mean arithmetic mean (M), mean values (m), for normal symptoms. The t-test and variance analysis were used for the present study, and the relationship between two or more variables was found using linear correlation and regression methods. Pearson's correlation coefficient “r” test was calculated between PSA, IPSS and 25(OH)D, continuous variables. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: 252 men were included in the present study, the mean age 59 ±7.9, the mean PSA level 4.3±0.42, BMI 28.4±0.25, IPSS 12±0.64, 25(OH)D 17.5±0.47. PSA <4.0, the mean 25(OH)D serum level was 19.95±6.87, PSA 4-10, 25(OH)D 14.31±7.43, PSA >10, 25(OH)D-11.46±3.50. However, the correlation between IPSS and Vitamin D using Pearson's correlation was statistically insignificant (r = 0.05 p<0.001).

Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common in males with the increased risk of developing prostate cancer. The increase in PSA levels correlates with the lower vitamin D levels, as well as correlation between 25(OH)D serum level and increased prostate cancer risk was also found.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chronic Consumption of Sweeteners Increases Carbonylated Protein Production in Lymphocytes from Mouse Lymphoid Organs

J. A. Escoto-Herrera, B. E. Martínez-Carrillo, N. Ramírez-Durán, H. Ramírez-Saad, R. Valdés-Ramos

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 209-219
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/36772

Background: The prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes mellitus has increased in Mexico, therefore, sucralose and stevia are being used as alternative non-caloric sweeteners to reduce energy intake. Moreover, poorly balanced diets can lead to the formation of carbonyl groups, a marker used to determine oxidative damage to proteins. Increased presence of carbonylated proteins in CD1 mice chronically consuming sweeteners, may point them as causing oxidative damage.

Aims: To determine whether the continued use of natural and artificial sweeteners increases the presence of carbonylated proteins in lymphocytes of lymphoid tissues in CD1 male mice.

Methods: The present study was conducted with 72 CD1 newly weaned (21-day old) male mice, fed with standard lab diet and water ad libitum; mice were hosted in cages in groups of 4 under controlled temperature conditions (19-21°C), and light/dark cycles of 12/12 h. Weight and food intake was quantified weekly. Three groups of mice were randomly conformed: a) Baseline (21-day old, newly weaned, n=8); b) 6-week of treatment (63-day old, n=32); c) 12-week of treatment (105-day old, n=32). Groups b and c were divided into 4 subgroups each (n=8): i) Control (CL) without sweeteners; ii) Sucrose (SUC); iii) Sucralose (SUCL), and iv) Stevia (ST). Body weight, food, and water consumption were measured, and BMI was calculated from those values. Lymphocytes from Peyer's patches, peripheral blood and spleen were isolated, and from these cells carbonylated protein concentration was quantified. Blood glucose was also assessed.

Results: Mice in SUCL and ST groups had lower weight gain and BMI compared to those that consumed SUC. The SUCL group consumed more food and the ST group decreased food intake, as compared with SUC and control groups. ST group drank more sweetened water, compared to the other groups. The percentage of blood lymphocytes and the carbonylated proteins concentrations were higher in the SUCL group.

Conclusions: The chronic consumption of sucralose, caused an increase in food intake. In addition, the percentage of lymphocytes circulating in blood was elevated, as well as the concentration of carbonylated proteins in these cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Prolonged Sweetener Consumption and Chronic Stress in the Production of Carbonylated Proteins in Blood Lymphocytes

Lucía García-Iniesta, Beatriz E. Martínez-Carrillo, Roxana Valdés-Ramos, Rosa A. Jarillo-Luna, Jorge A. Escoto-Herrera, Aldo Reséndiz-Albor

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 220-232
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/36313

Introduction: Modern lifestyles have changed eating habits, encouraged physical inactivity, and increased stress in daily life. These living conditions cause elevated concentrations of carbonylated proteins like biomarker of oxidative stress. The expression of this proteins represent irreversible damage to structural intracellular proteins in cells and extracellular matrix. It is not clear whether a rise in the concentration of these proteins is the origin or consequence of diseases.

Objective: To determine in a healthy young mice model the possible correlation between prolonged sweetener consumption and the presence of chronic physiological stress, evidenced by the production of carbonylated proteins in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Methods: Sixty-four 21-day-old CD1 male mice were divided into two groups, stressed (with immobilization) and unstressed. Each group was divided into four subgroups: Control or experimental with a 6-week administration of sucrose, sucralose or stevia. Body mass index, food intake, number and concentration of carbonylated proteins, levels of glucose and peripheral lymphocytes in blood were evaluated. Data were analyzed with ANOVA.

Results: Compared to the unstressed control, the glucose concentration was elevated in all stressed subgroups (F = 13.41, p < 0.01), with greater weight found in the stressed sucralose supplemented subgroup (F = 77.58, p < 0.001). The blood level of peripheral lymphocytes was above the control in all subgroups (F = 19.97, p < 0.01), except the decrease observed in unstressed sucrose supplemented subgroup. Carbonylated protein concentration in peripheral blood lymphocytes was high in all subgroups (versus the control) except in unstressed animals suppelemented with stevia (F = 51.16, p <0.01).

Conclusions: Stress plus sucralose increased number of lymphocytes and carbonylated proteins concentration. The physiological stress with or without sweetener consumption generated increase in carbonylated proteins concentration. Stevia did not modify lymphocytes and carbonylated proteins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Low Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Traditional Peanut Butter is Associated with Risk for Consumers

Zamblé Abel Boli, Lessoy Thierry Zoué, Marina Koussemon, Rose Koffi-Nevry

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 233-243
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/36475

Aims: The aim of this study was to conduct a quantitative risk assessment linked to Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A exposure through peanut butter consumption by population of Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire).

Study Design: Sampling of peanut butter from markets, analysis of peanut butters samples, consumption survey and quantitative risk assessment.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan (March to August 2014) and University of Ghent, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Belgium (September to December 2016).

Methodology: 45 composite samples of peanut butter from 225 total samples were analyzed by HPLC to determine the AFB1 and OTA contents. 450 households were randomly selected and a questionnaire was used to assess the uses of peanut butter, the quantities used for sauce making and the frequency of peanut butter sauce consumption. A probabilistic quantitative risk assessment based on Monte Carlo simulation was carried out to determine the exposure associated with the AFB1 and OTA occurrence.

Results: The values of AFB1 and OTA contents were in the range of 1.522-1.641 ppb. Peanut butter is mainly used for preparation of sauces (84.20 ± 9.38%) and more than half of the consumers of peanut butter sauce are children (59 to 78 %). The serving size is about 750 g considering a frequency of 2 times consumption per week (55%). For the upper bond scenario, the exposure value for AFB1 was 2.193 ng/kg bw/day while that of OTA was 2.012 ng/kg bw/day for the 99.0th percentile of consumers. Overall, 10.1-15.6% of the population might be exposed to AFB1 chronic toxicity.

Conclusion: This study highlighted a relatively high exposure to AFB1 in peanut butter sauce. Therefore there is a need to implement strategies based on Good Agricultural and Good Hygiene Practices for AFB1 and OTA mitigation along the peanut butter chain in Ivory Coast.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dairy Calcium Intake and Relationship to Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Bone Mineral Content (BMC) and Leptin in Post- Menopausal Women

Dina H. Fakhrawi, W. Lawrence Beeson, Raeida G. Nakhoul, T. Allan Darnell, Zaida R. Cordero-MacIntyre

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 244-253
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/37127

Previous research has demonstrated that dairy calcium along with calorie restriction can contribute to weight loss while maintaining BMC and BMD. This study was a 3-month demonstration of a culturally sensitive program to evaluate the effects of dairy calcium.

Caloric intake was limited to 1400 kcal/d 92% of resting energy expenditure]. A total of 56 female subjects were randomized into two equal groups receiving either low dairy calcium ~800 mg/d or high dairy calcium ~1400 mg/d intake. The age and body mass index (BMI) at baseline for the low calcium group was 54.46±7.39 years, 32.5±6.6 kg/m2 respectively; and the high calcium group was 56.75± 8.90 years, 33.5±5.8 kg/m2 respectively. Differences after 3 months in weight, BMI, leptin, BMD and BMC were analyzed. Correlations were calculated between leptin and BMD (g/cm2) or BMC (g) before and after intervention. After the intervention in the high calcium group there was an average reduction in weight -1.52±2.08 (kg), (P=0.001); BMI: -0.70±0.86 kg/m2, (p<0.001); leptin: -1.18±5.10 ng/ml, (P =0.231) BMC: -0.009±1.41, (p=0.975) and BMD: 0.001±.017, (p=0.684).  Despite a greater reduction in leptin levels in the low calcium group, changes in all parameters were not different from changes in the low calcium group with an average reduction in weight of -1.93±3.04 (kg), (p=0.002); BMI: -0.74±1.2 kg/m2, (P=0.002); leptin: -2.58±8.38 ng/ml, (P=0.114), BMC: 0.038±1.38, (P=0.887) and BMD: <0.001±.022, (P=0.912). The decrease in leptin level was not correlated with BMD and BMC in both intervention groups (all P>0.05). We observed a significant treatment effect only for leptin where the low calcium group had a bigger reduction compared to the high calcium group.  There was no significant correlation between the change in leptin, BMC and BMD.

Open Access Review Article

Are the Homestead Gardens a Possible Solution to Combating Malnutrition in Nigeria?

P. K. Nwaneke, V. O. Chude

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 199-208
DOI: 10.9734/EJNFS/2017/36520

Nigeria has the highest number of stunted children in Sub-Sahara Africa and the second largest number of malnourished children in the world and the figures are not dropping significantly. This is despite the various nutrition interventions in the country which are mainly focused on food fortification and supplementation with very little attention given to agricultural interventions such as integrated homestead gardens. It is established that one of the two immediate causes of malnutrition is poor diet which in Nigeria is largely caused by food insecurity. Integrated homestead garden could serve as an approach to achieving household food security. This is a kind of farming were both crops and livestock are kept in a properly managed manner, within the homestead, to ensure year round access to farm produce with minimal resource input. Fruits, vegetables, legumes and other staples grown in the household as well as meat and eggs can serve as year round supply of nutritious food and homemade beverages and snacks. The major benefits of integrated homestead garden as a nutrition sensitive intervention is that it gets to the most vulnerable; the rural poor, women and children. For successful implementation of homestead gardens for nutrition intervention, the government needs to move from political commitments to action by implementing policies, committing funds, and promoting nutrition education.