Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of the Fungicide Luna Privilege with the Active Substance Fluopyram

Line Emilie Sverdrup, Christine Bjørge, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Torsten Källqvist, Ingeborg Klingen, Marit Låg, Erik Ropstad, Edgar Rivedal

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030530

Luna Privilege is a new fungicide for use in apples, pears, outdoor and indoor strawberries, outdoor and indoor lettuces, peas, beans and indoor tomatoes, and contains the new active substance fluopyram.

VKM was requested by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority to consider the possible health risk for operators related to the properties of Luna Privilege and fluopyram; in particular to evaluate the potential for bioaccumulation, reproductive and neurotoxic effects, and discuss possible mechanisms involved in liver and thyroid tumor formation observed in rats, and the establishment of NOAELs and reference values.

VKM was also asked to evaluate the fate and behaviour of fluopyram in the environment, and the ecotoxicological effects and risks related to its use, in particular the potential for groundwater contamination, safety margins and possible effects on birds and aquatic organisms.

The assessment was finalized in a meeting on December 13. 2013 by VKM’s Panel on Plant Protection Products.

VKM’s conclusions are as follows:

Health:

It is the opinion of VKM that:

  • The active ingredient fluopyram has low potential for bioaccumulation, and the data do not suggest a sex-specific excretion.

 

  • An in vivo Comet Assay in rat liver could help to further elucidate the genotoxic potential of fluopyram.

 

  • It can not be excluded that the reported incidence of “gall bladder absent” is treatment related.

 

  • NOAEL for the 90-day feeding study in rats should be set to 3.06 mg/kg bw/day, resulting in an AOEL of 0.03 mg/kg bw/day.

 

  • The “dumb-bell or incomplete ossification and/or bipartite/normal cartilage” should be considered as a malformation and regarded as treatment related.

 

  • The time points used for neurotoxic measurements are not optimal to detect neurotoxic effects from acute exposure, since the time window between the first and second measurements is too long.

 

  • The studies where effects of fluopyram and phenobarbital are compared can not be used to exclude human relevance of the tumor-inducing effect of fluopyram in the liver of female rats.

 

  • The results from the mechanistic studies are insufficient to support the proposed mode of action for the induction of thyroid follicular cell tumors in male mice, and thus the induction of thyroid tumors in male mice could be relevant for humans.

VKM proposes:

 

  • NOAEL of 1.2 mg/kg bw/day based on a 2 year feeding study in rats.

 

  • ADI: 0.012 mg/kg bw/day

 

  • AOEL: 0.03 mg/kg bw/day

 

  • ARfD: 0.25 mg/kg bw/day

 

Risk calculations for field use of Luna Privilege show minimal risk if personal protective equipment is used. The AOEL of fluopyram for greenhouse use is not exceeded, even without protective equipment. Re-entry and bystander exposure is calculated to be well below the AOEL.

Environment:

It is the opinion of VKM that:

  • Worst case degradation rates from laboratory studies should preferably be used to calculate PECsoil values for fluopyram.
  • Both fluopyram and fluopyram-7-hydroxy have a high potential for groundwater contamination.

 

  • The efficacy of buffer zones needs to be considered on a case-by-case basis, and further validation of values for efficacy from the model simulation is necessary.

 

  • It is further the opinion of VKM that all the refinements used in the risk assessment for birds are relevant. Since the TER values estimated for all crops except for orchards are below the trigger following refinements, it is the view of VKM that the data indicate medium risk for strawberries and pulses, and high risk for lettuce in open field.

 

  • The use of LC50 values for fluopyram in the TER calculations with a TER trigger value of 100 is overly conservative, and a reduction of the acute trigger for both invertebrates and fish from 100 to 10 for such calculations are suggested.

 

  • The trigger for acute toxicity is not exceeded for any of the crops. For chronic toxicity, VKM concludes that there is a moderate risk for effects on fish when Luna Privilege is applied to beans/strawberries without the use of a vegetated mitigation buffer-strip.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of the Fungicide Talius with the Active Substances Proquinazid

Line Emilie Sverdrup, Christine Bjørge, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Torsten Källqvist, Ingeborg Klingen, Marit Låg, Edgar Rivedal, Erik Ropstad, Steinar Øvrebø

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 4-6
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030531

Talius is a new fungicide containing the new active substance proquinazid. Talius is a fungicide against cereal powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) in cereals and grass seed. The risk assessment was finalized at a meeting Mai 29, 2012, by VKM’s Scientific Panel on plant protection products (VKM). VKM is in particular asked by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority to look at the following: 

  • The human health risk for operators related to the properties of the active substance and the product. o The effects seen in studies on dog and if these effects warrant a classification for chronic toxicity. o The oncogenic effects in liver and thyroid. o The establishment of reference values (ADI, AOEL and ARfD). o Dermal absorption. o The classification and labelling of the active substances and the product. • The fate and behaviour in the environment and the ecotoxical effects and risks with regard to the properties of Talius and proquinazid.

VKM’s conclusion is as follows: 

Health:

VKM concluded that a less serious effect (dose-related ocular discharge increase) was seen in dogs in both the 90 days study and 1 year-study. The opinion of the Panel is that cholangiocarcinomas is relevant for the classification of cancer and VKM is concerned about these effects. 

VKM proposes an NOAEL of 1.2 mg/kg bw/day for proquinazid based on the 2 year study with rats.

VKM support:

  • The proposed ADI value of 0.01 mg/kg bw/day. • The proposed AOEL value of 0.02 mg/kg bw/day.

 

  • The proposed ARfD value of 0.2 mg/kg bw/day. • The proposed classification from The Norwegian Food Safety Authority.

VKM supports The Norwegian Food and Safety Authority calculations for dermal absorption under Norwegian directions for use (2.6 times higher dilution).

Environment:

Proquinazid can be persistent under prevailing conditions in Norway and the Panel considers the results from the Finnish PEC calculator to be relevant for Norwegian conditions and expects that repeated annual applications may cause accumulation in soil up to an equilibrium level under Norwegian conditions.The potential for groundwater contamination from leaching of proquinazid and its metabolites are low. There are minimal risks for toxic effects of proquinazid to terrestrial organisms, sediment dwelling organisms, aquatic plants, and algae with the proposed application regime. 

For fish and invertebrates minimal risks are calculated provided that a 3 m buffer zone is used.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of the Growth Inhibitor Bonzi with the Active Substance Paclobutrazol

Line Emilie Sverdrup, Christine Bjørge, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Torsten Källqvist, Ingeborg Klingen, Marit Låg, Erik Ropstad, Steinar Øvrebø

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 7-8
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030532

Bonzi is a new plant growth regulator containing the active ingredient paclobutrazol of the triazole chemical class. Bonzi is for use on ornamental plants, such as Chrysanthemum, Perennial Plants, Bedding Plants, Foliage Plants, Geraniums, Hibiscus and Azaleas, in nurseries and greenhouses.

 

VKM was requested by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority to consider the potential of Bonzi and paclobutrazol to induce reproductive effects in humans; in particular the relative sensitivity and relation between maternal effects and the effects on the offspring; and to what extent cleft palate observed in developmental studies in rat can be regarded as a specific teratogenic effect of relevance for humans. The risk assessment was finalized in a meeting in VKM’s Scientific Panel on Plant Protection Products on May 24. 2013.

VKM’s conclusions are as follows:

 

No adverse effect on fertility or reproductive performance was seen in rats. VKM concluded that the incidences of twisted snout observed in the F1 and F2 offspring of paclobutrazol treated rats are not likely to represent a developmental alteration, but rather an unspecific toxic effect.

 

Marked maternal toxicity was seen in rats above 250 mg/kg bw/day, while partially ossified 7th cervical transverse processes and supernumerary 14th ribs were found in the offspring at 10 - 40 mg/kg/day. VKM concluded that the latter should be regarded as a direct teratogenic effect of paclobutrazol.

 

Furthermore, VKM concluded that the data from the developmental toxicity studies are inconclusive regarding the effect on cleft palate development in rat foetuses.

 

VKM proposes a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/day for paclobutrazol based on a developmental toxicity study in rats.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of the Insecticide Movento 100 SC with the Active Substance Spirotetramat

Line Emilie Sverdrup, Christine Bjørge, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Torsten Källqvist, Ingeborg Klingen, Marit Låg, Erik Ropstad, Steinar Øvrebø

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 9-11
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030533

Movento 100 SC is a new insecticide containing the active substance spirotetramat. The intended use is in stone fruit, pome fruit, vegetables and ornamentals outdoors, and lettuce, tomatoes and cucumbers in greenhouses.

VKM was requested by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority to consider possible health risk for operators related to the properties of Movento 100 SC; in particular the relevance of the effects of spirotetramat on thyroid hormones, brain, thymus and body weight observed in dogs, and the reproductive effects of spirotetramat observed in rats. VKM was also asked to consider the fate and behaviour of Movento 100 SC with the active ingredient spirotetramat in the environment, and the ecotoxicological effects and risks related to its use. The risk assessment was finalized in a meeting on May 24. 2013, by VKM’s Scientific Panel on Plant Protection Products.

VKM’s conclusions are as follows:

Health:

VKM concludes that spirotetramat shows toxic effects in dogs and rats that could be relevant for humans. Thyroid and thymus glands are target organs in the oral subchronic toxicity studies of spirotetramat in dogs, and effects are observed from 19 mg/kg bw/day (600 ppm). Decreases in circulating thyroid hormone levels were detected in all three studies carried out with dogs (28-, 90-days and 1-year) and should be considered toxicologically relevant. The opinion of the Panel is that it cannot be excluded that the observed brain dilatation in dogs is treatment-related, and relevant to humans.

Furthermore, VKM concludes that the reproductive effect observed in rats could be relevant for humans.

VKM proposes a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/day (200 ppm) for spirotetramat based on a 1- year toxicity study in dogs, and a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg bw/day based on the acute neurotoxicity study in rats.

VKM supports/proposes:

  • ADI: 0.05 mg/kg bw/day.
  • AOEL: 0.05 mg/kg bw/day.
  • ARfD: 1 mg/kg bw/day.

Risk calculations show minimal risk if personal protective equipment is used.

Environment:

VKM concludes that spirotetramat and its metabolites are not expected to accumulate in soil. It is not expected that spirotetramat or any of its metabolites will reach concentrations in groundwater above the threshold level of 0.1 μg/L when the formulation Movento 100 SC is applied according to the intended use.

VKM concludes that use of Movento 100 SC with the active substance spirotetramat according to the proposed application scheme in Norway represents a minimal risk of adverse effects on terrestrial mammals, birds, earthworms, and soil microorganisms. However, in-field effects on sensitive species of predatory mites in the crop cannot be excluded.

The risk of adverse effects on bees is minimal providing that spirotetramat is not used on crops during flowering or when bees are actively foraging.

For aquatic organisms in surface water, the risk is considered minimal, provided that a 5 m buffer zone to open water is used.

Open Access Grey Literature

Risk Assessment of the Insecticide Plenum 50 WG with the Active Substances Pymetrozine

Line Emilie Sverdrup, Christine Bjørge, Ole Martin Eklo, Merete Grung, Torsten Källqvist, Ingeborg Klingen, Marit Låg, Edgar Rivedal, Erik Ropstad, Steinar Øvrebø

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 12-14
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030534

Plenum is a new insecticide containing the new active substance pymetrozine. Plenum is an insecticide against different pests in ornamentals, lettuce, cucumber and tomato in greenhouse and against pollen beetles in oilseed- and turnip rapes. The risk assessment was finalized at a meeting Mai 29, 2012, by VKM’s Scientific Panel on plant protection products (VKM). The Panel is in particular asked by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority to look at the following: 

  • The human health risk for operators related to the properties of the active substance and the product. The Panel is in particular asked to look at the following: o The effects seen in studies on dog and if these effects warrant a classification for chronic toxicity. o The oncogenic effects in liver and lungs o The genotoxicity of metabolite CGA 300407. o The effects on reproduction and if the effects seen in teratology studies and developmental neurotoxicity study warrant a classification for developmental toxicity o The establishment of NOAELs and reference values (ADI, AOEL and ARfD). o The classification and labelling of the active substances and the product.

VKM’s conclusion is as follows: 

The effects reported in the repeated dose toxicity studies with dogs should be considered as adverse.  

The increased incidence of liver and lung tumors should be considered as relevant for humans. It cannot be excluded that a genotoxic mechanism could be involved in the formation of the liver tumors, which would have implications for risk assessment. It should therefore be considered to test pymetrozine in more sensitive in vivo genotoxic endpoints in liver. 

The effects reported in the teratogenicity studies in rats and rabbits and in the developmental neurotoxicity study in rats should be considered for a classification of pymetrozine for developmental toxicity. 

Risk calculations with both the German model and the UK POEM show low risk if personal protection equipment is used.

VKM propose:

  • NOAEL of 0.6 mg/kg bw/day for pymetrozine based on the 1-year study in dogs. 
  • AOEL of 0.006 mg/kg bw/day for pymetrozine based on the NOAEL value at 0.6 mg/kg bw/day from the one year study in dogs and an UF of 100. 
  • ADI of 0.006 for pymetrozine based on the NOAEL value at 0.6 mg/kg bw/day from the one year study in dogs and an UF of 100. 
  • ARfD of 0.02 mg/kg bw/day for pymetrozine based on the LOAEL value at 8.1 mg/kg bw/day from the developmental neurotoxicity study and an UF of 500 (10 x interspecies difference, 10 x intraspecies difference, 3 x due to the use of a LOAEL value and 2 x due to the adversity of the neurodevelopmental effects).

VKM supports the classification proposal from Norwegian Food Safety Authority.

Open Access Grey Literature

Impact of Climate Change on Microbiological Hazards in Food and Drinking Water in Sweden

Åsa Svanström, Maria Egervärn, Karin Nyberg, Roland Lindqvist

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 95-98
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i101258

Objective and scope: To increase our knowledge on how climate change can affect microbiological food safety in Sweden, during this century, a risk profile was developed. The focus of the report is to identify existing and emerging microbiological hazards (pathogenic microorganisms and toxins) that may be of concern and may affect the safety of food and water consumed in Sweden. Specific issues addressed are how the different stages in the food chain can be affected, and which hazards are most relevant for different food groups. The report is based on published scientific literature and governmental reports.

Climate change scenarios: Human emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases affect a range of climate-related factors and lead to changes beyond those natural variations that have always occurred. These climate changes are already evident and will, according to various scenarios, continue during the rest of the century. The scenario assessed in the report was RCP8.5. Globally, this means higher annual average temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, reduced access to freshwater in many regions, rising sea levels, and acidification of the oceans. In Sweden, the climate will become warmer compared to today, especially in winter. Rainfall will generally increase, mostly in winter and spring, especially in the northern parts of Sweden. In the southeastern part of the country, increased drought and water shortages are expected. Climate change is also expected to lead to more frequent extreme weather, for instance floods and heat waves.

Impact on food safety: A changed climate will have several effects on the environment and society that can affect food safety. Examples of such effects are changing conditions for crop production, livestock production, infrastructure, energy supply, and water availability.

Climate change can influence food safety in different ways and through different routes along the entire food chain. Much of the impact occurs at the first stage, primary production, and can then propagate in the rest of the chain. Two scenarios were highlighted in the report, both of which are relevant for all stages of the food chain, although they may be of varying importance depending on the stage and type of operation considered:

  • The first scenario includes the impact on food safety due to a change in the normal conditions with higher average temperature, increased precipitation or drought, and milder winters.
  • The second scenario includes an increased frequency of extreme events such as torrential rains, floods, and dry periods, with potential consequences such as power failures and other disruptions of infrastructure that can have a major impact on the food chain and, in turn, on food safety.

Climate change adaptations: In order to address the challenges associated with new “normal conditions”, climate change adaptation is needed in the production chains of food and drinking water. The normal conditions in Sweden may become similar to the current situation in southern Europe. This description of the new potential situation in this scenario is useful for communication purposes, and gives the stakeholders an idea of what adaptation measures may be needed.

Additionally, an increased preparedness is needed to prevent and manage extreme events in the second scenario that can lead to an increased occurrence of pathogens and toxins in the raw materials and in drinking and process water as well as to increased frequency of disturbances in infrastructure.

To some extent, changed conditions in primary production can be addressed through the application of Good Agricultural Practice and/or certification standards. However, despite these frameworks, the challenges in this first stage of the food chain can be expected to be particularly high. It is more difficult to implement direct management measures here than at later stages of the food chain. There, HACCP-based procedures and PRPs such as good hygiene practices and good production practices have been used with good results.

Microbiological hazards: Assessing the impact of climate change on microbiological hazards is complex. This is partly because the changes that will take place are interrelated and can affect our environment in several different ways. It is also due to the fact that the available studies on which the assessment is based vary greatly, both in terms of the hazards that are studied and in terms of scope and methodological designs.

Bacteria that are likely to increase in the environment, water, animals, plants, and/or food raw materials due to a changing climate, and for which the level of evidence is considered high, are Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Vibrio spp. Potentially, all food-borne viruses are expected to increase in occurrence due to climate change. However, the level of evidence is intermediate for noroviruses and low for hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus. Most parasites will potentially increase in occurrence due to climate change, but the level of evidence is low for most. For Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Toxoplasma gondii, the level of evidence is intermediate. Among the mycotoxins, it is estimated that all Fusarium toxins addressed (DON, T2/HT2, ZEN, and fumonisins) will increase, of which the evidence level is highest for DON and fumonisins. Further, aflatoxins are expected to increase with a high level of evidence. In addition to the microbiological hazards listed, several other species of bacteria, viruses, and parasites as well as types of mycotoxins are also considered likely to increase, but due to a lack of data and in some cases conflicting indications, these assessments are uncertain.

None of the microbiological hazards discussed in the report have been assessed likely to decrease in occurrence due to climate change. However, it should be noted that some climatic factors may influence microbiological hazards in both positive and negative directions. At the local level, it may thus be the case that certain hazards that have been assessed as potentially increasing instead remain unchanged or even decrease in occurrence. The final outcome also depends on the effectiveness of measures taken to address the challenges of climate change.

Microbiological hazards and food groups: The microbiological hazards increasing in importance due to a changing climate are likely to vary for different food groups. The pathogenic microorganisms and toxins judged potentially to increase in occurrence and of relevance in different food groups due to a changed climate have been compiled (Table 1). It has not been possible, on the basis of existing data, to rank the hazards. The assessment suggests that it is of greatest importance to consider which pathways and types of hazards (properties, resistance) may be relevant in the different food groups because the control measures will in most cases be similar for different types of hazards.

Capture4.PNG

Concluding remarks: Many sources of uncertainty for the assessments were identified. The main sources include knowledge gaps associated with data on the extent to which the climate will impact on microbiological hazards, difficulties in identifying causal relationships based on correlations, knowledge gaps associated with the methodology of carrying out this type of complex assessment against uncertain future scenarios, and knowledge gaps regarding the future climate and its effects. A further contributing uncertainty is knowledge gaps on potential feedback mechanisms between climate change and its effects.

Despite the uncertainties, the increased food safety challenges qualitatively identified in this report are considered likely. These challenges are the consequences of the impacts that climate change under the RCP8.5 scenario may have on several of the microbiological hazards in terms of increased or potentially increased occurrence in the environment, water, animals, plants, and/or food raw materials. Conclusions on the change of specific microbiological hazards, the extent of the impact, and the rate of change are subject to significantly greater uncertainty. This is not least because the impact of climate change depends on the accuracy of the climate scenarios and on what measures are put in place.

The risk profile is an initial and general compilation of knowledge that can form a basis for further and more detailed studies and activities in the various sectors in the food chain.

The complete report can be downloaded from:

L 2021 — No 19 — Microbiological hazards (livsmedelsverket.se).

Open Access Opinion Article

Implications of Safe Street Foods in Dhaka City: An Opinion

Shah Mustafizur Rahman, Anis Ahmed, A. S. M. Giasuddin

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 58-63
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030541

Street foods play an important role in large group of economic people in the Dhaka city. And it is also the major source of income for floating vendors. Huge numbers of vendors sell dishes, snacks, fruits, and beverages in the megacity of Dhaka. The objective of this article is to promote and maintain the hygienic environment of selling street foods among vendors in Dhaka city. Contaminated foods cause various kinds of diarrheal diseases. To prevent this contagious disease food safety needs much more awareness. To ascertain safe street foods, the government and non-government organizations should implement rules and regulations strictly and appropriate   programmes should be conducted. The various facets of street foods available in Dhaka city have been briefly described in the present article.

Open Access Original Research Article

Body Mass Index (BMI) and Cutaneous Lesions among the Elderly Patients in a Tertiary Hospital in Rivers State

E. F. Pepple, E. S. Amadi, B. Otike-Odibi, H. I . Bell-Gam

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 15-22
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030535

Aims:  The aim of the study is to highlight that cutaneous lesion can be markers of nutritional status in the elderly.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study took place within the wards of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 3 month period.

Methodology: A sample of 126 elderly patients were calculated as the sample size to be assessed for cutaneous lesions, of which 122  were fit enough to have their BMI assessed using standardized protocol of measuring height and weight. The BMI was calculated using the formula -BMI = kg/m2.

Results: Out of the total, 55 of them representing 45.1% had normal BMI, 13 representing 10.7% were underweight, 33 (27%) over weight and 21(17.2%) obese. Underweight elderly patients were more likely than those with normal weight to have xerosis, itching, wrinkles, idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis and ulcers. The elderly with overweight and obesity were more likely to have dermatosis papulosa nigra, signs of post-bleaching syndrome and surgical scars.

Conclusion: Complaints or observance of cutaneous lesions in elderly should be a reason to investigate nutrition and the solution may lie in nutrition based treatment. More research is however needed to further evaluate the association between cutaneous lesions and body mass index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Quality Assessment of Biscuit from Acha Flour Supplemented with Pigeon Pea

James Abiodun Adeyanju, Olubunmi Dupe Alabi, Adekanmi Olusegun Abioye, Abiola Adewale Oloyede, Olayinka Idayat Korede

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030538

This research work evaluates the production of biscuits from blends of acha and pigeon pea flour. Acha and pigeon pea flour were blended in the ratio 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20 and 100:0 (control) to produce biscuits. Biscuits made from this blend were analyzed for proximate analysis, antinutrient composition, physical attributes, and sensory qualities. The moisture, protein, fat, crude fiber, ash, and carbohydrate content of the biscuits ranged from 7.87-9.84%, 7.36-8.14%, 21.99-26.33%, 0.39-0.59%, 0.87-1.24%, and 58.06-63.01%, respectively. The antinutrient composition varied from 4.24-6.82% for tannin and 3.85-4.68% for phytate. The physical attributes of the biscuits ranged from 8.34-10.98 g, 0.56-0.85 cm, 4.77-5.03, 5.99-8.59 for weight, thickness, diameter and spread ratio, respectively. The sensory evaluation showed that the biscuit sample with the blend ratio of 95% and 5% (acha to pigeon pea flour) was the most acceptable because it gave the best colour, appearance, crispness and overall acceptability. The result shows that acceptable biscuits with improved nutritional attributes can be produced from the blend of acha and pigeon pea flour. This will eliminate or reduce the problems associated with protein-energy malnutrition common in most local communities, and reduce wheat importation, thereby increasing the use of the most underutilized sources of flour in most developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sowing Date and Phosphorus on Growth, Seed Yield and Quality of Fenugreek

Shamsun Nahar, Tahmina Mostarin, Khaleda Khatun, Akhi Akter, Tahira Begum, Abdullah Salfe Al Shamim, Faysal-Al Mamun, Abdullah All Imtiaz, Mahbub Iqbal, Md. Abdus Samad

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 30-42
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030539

The effect of sowing date (three sowing dates viz., S1= 01 November, S2= 15 November and S3= 30 November) and phosphorus levels (four phosphorus fertilizer levels viz., P0= Control, P1= 35 kg P ha-1, P2= 45 kg P ha-1 and P3= 55 kg P ha-1) on growth, seed yield and quality of fenugreek was investigated at Horticulture Farm, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during 10 October 2020 to April 2021. Growth-related data was maximum on S1 (01 November) treatment but S2 (15 November) treatment showed the best result in case of seed yield. In case of growth characters, P3 (55 kg ha-1) revealed the best result but in case of seed yield, P2 (45 kg ha-1) treatment showed the best effect. Under this investigation, it was revealed that the maximum growth was obtained by S1P3 (01 November with 55 kg P ha-1) and the minimum growth was obtained by S3P0 (30 November with control) treatment combination. The maximum pods per plant (52.61), seeds per pod (12.87), weight of individual pod (147.11 mg), the weight of seeds per plant (7.67 g) and weight of 1000-seed (13.86 g), seed yield per plot (306.72 g), seed yield per hectare (2.13 t) and vigor index (570.27) was observed from the treatment combination S2P2 (15 November with 45 kg P ha-1). It was concluded that the combination of sowing date S2 (15 November) along with phosphorus application P2 (45 kg P ha-1) were given the better performance of all the yield contributing parameters and seed yield of fenugreek. So, S2P2 (15 November with 45 kg P ha-1) treatment combination can be repeated in different agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Mucuna Milk (Mucuna pruriens L.) on Body Weight and Serum Biochemistry in Rats Fed Hyperlipidaemic Diet

Bidja Abena Marie Thérèse, Mang Yannick Dimitry, Djiogue Manejo Josiane Edith, Abdou Bouba Armand, Njintang Yanou Nicolas

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 43-57
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030540

Aims: to investigate the potential of Mucuna milk to influence weight gain, blood lipid levels and redox status in a rat model on a high-fat diet.

Study Design: 42 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 rats. Group I received a standard diet; Group II was fed a high fat diet only; Group III was fed a high fat diet and treated with Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg per day) orally for 4 weeks; Group IV, V, VI and VII were tests groups fed a high fat diet and given orally 20 mL of vegetable milk.

Methodology: Mucuna milks were produced from two varieties of Mucuna seeds. Three controls (I, II, III) made of normal rats fed with standard diet, rats fed with high fat diet and rats fed with high fat diet received orally atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/day). In addition, four test groups (IV, V, VI, VII) consisting of rats fed a high fat diet received oral administration of 20 mL of vegetable milk per day (10 mL at morning and 10 mL in the afternoon).

Results: After four weeks, rats on a high-fat diet had an increase in their initial body weight of about 224%, with higher abdominal fat. A significant increase (P<0.05) in lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the liver and heart was also observed. However, oral administration of Mucuna milk inhibited weight gain (about 66% reduction) and abdominal fat (54.53 – 55.60% reduction). The reduction of LDL, VLDL, Triglycerides and Total cholesterol was remarkable in the groups of rats treated with vegetable milk, as about 67% of reduction was observed with dehulled Mucuna milks (DCM, DVM) and 69 % of reduction with whole Mucuna milks (WCM, WVM). The hyperlipidaemic group of rats had higher levels of ASAT (134.17 UI/L) and ALAT (101.72 UI/L). However, Mucuna milks improved the ASAT and ALAT levels in rats. The reduction of MDA (70-50%) was related to phenolic content of Mucuna milks. Moreover, significant and negative correlations was observed between catalase and MDA (r= -0.86; P =0.05); MDA and SOD (r= - 0.60; P=0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that treatment with Mucuna milks has anti-hyperlipidaemia properties and can increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Smoked Fish Treated with Ocimum gratissimum Extract

Okorie-Humphrey Chinasa, E. Obasi Nneoma, U. Enyi Chukwunwike, O. Ukpong Emem, N. Amuzie Nmesomachi, U. Udume Bethel

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 77-83
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030544

This work aims to the effect of three different concentrations (20%, 40%, and 60%) of Ocimum gratissimum extract on the proximate, mineral composition and sensory acceptability of smoked catfish and mackerel samples. Fresh fish samples were hot smoked in a locally fabricated smoking kiln at 1100C. Results showed that the moisture content of smoked catfish and mackerel was significantly different (P≤0.05) from the control sample. The percentage of crude protein content decreased in smoked catfish and increased in mackerel samples and also differed significantly (P≤0.05) compared with the control. Ash and fat content decreased in smoked fish and the crude fibre content was slightly increased in smoked mackerel. The minerals composition showed a significant difference (P≤0.05) was observed although there were decrease in iodine and potassium content of catfish. There was a significant difference (P≤0.05) in organoleptic scores among the fish samples treated with 20% and 40% Ocimum gratissimum which were significantly higher than the control. This study concluded that Ocimum gratissimum inclusion does not have any adverse effect on the chemical composition of smoked fish sample but could improve their sensory quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Dietary Profile of Basketball Players in the Senior First Division Teams of Côte d’Ivoire

K. Diallo, D. A. Sess-Tchotch, A. H. Yépié, A. R. Kouadjo, N’guessan K., L. O. A. A. Anin

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 84-94
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030545

Introduction: Diet plays a fundamental role in the performance of athletes in general and basketball players in particular. For a better understanding of the nutrition of the athlete, this work aimed to evaluate the diet of Ivorian female basketball players in pre-competitive periods.

Methodology: A retrospective frequency questionnaire survey was conducted from December 6, 2020 to the end of February 2021, on 86 female basketball players in the senior categories (17-35 years) playing in the first division. The collection of socio-demographic, anthropometric and dietary data before the competition was obtained for each team.

Results: The study showed that 38.38% of the female basketball players had no side activities while 61.62% had a side activity. In general, 84.88% of the players had a normal Body Mass Index (BMI) compared to 06.98% overweight and 2.33% obese. The energy requirements of the women's teams were between 2427 and 2810 Kcal. The overall amount of energy consumed at breakfast in the pre-competitive period was below the required standards, while the amount of energy consumed at lunch and dinner was above the required standards for the players.

Conclusion: In sum, the senior female basketball players of Côte d'Ivoire have a poor dietary profile. Nutritional interventions would be preferable for them in order to improve their nutritional knowledge on the one hand, and the distribution of caloric foods consumed during their different daily meals on the other hand, and to meet their energy needs.

Open Access Review Article

Effects of Calcium Carbide Used as a Fruit-Ripening Agent on Fruit Toxicity

Maman Manzo Lawaly

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 64-76
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i1030543

Aims: To provide a comprehensive summary of what has been published about the effects of calcium carbide (CaC2) as a fruit-ripening agent and to determine the necessity or not to develop awareness among government agencies, policymakers, farmers, vendors, and scientists in order to best address different aspects of artificial fruit ripening issues and to provide more profitable solutions for global health preservation.

Methodology: Scientific information about the effects of CaC2 published elsewhere was reviewed. Online databases of scientific journals which include Wiley Online Library, Science Direct, PubMed, CAS, CABI, AJOL and Google Scholar were used to select valuable studies.

Results: Most studies have reported the hazardous potential of CaC2 as a ripening agent. Among other potential effects that were discovered through laboratory investigations are the adulteration of nutritional values of ripened fruits and direct or indirect toxicity in studied living systems such as genotoxicity and cytotoxicity to dividing cells, increase of the cellular oxidative stress, disturbance of the redox balance of the cell, estrogenic disruptions, increase of the white blood cells and Lymphocytes, alteration of hematopoiesis, alteration of sperm cells, a decrease of the fertility rate, weakness of the immune system, etc.).

Conclusion: Overall, this review provides comprehensive information on what is known about the effects of CaC2 and showed the necessity to discourage its application as an artificial fruit ripening agent through the establishment of laws and regulations for better control of its use in most developing countries.