Study on the Effect of Different Drying Methods on the Proximate, Nutritional and Mineral Composition of Clarias gariepinus (Catfish)

F. N. Okwakpam *

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

I. Felagha

Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Africa, Toru-Orua, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

M. V. Gbogbara

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

P. O. Uahomo

Department of Biomedical Technology, School of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aim: This study investigated the effect of modern drying methods on the proximate, nutritional, and mineral composition of Clarias gariepinus in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Methods: Fresh C. gariepinus were purchased from Mile 3 Market in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Samples were dissected using a sharp knife, intestinal components, and gills were removed and the edible portion was washed properly and rinsed with distilled water. Samples were treated in four groups: fresh, smoking using firewood, electric drying (200oC), and non-electric drying (200oC for 30 minutes) methods. Samples were blended using mortar and pestle into powder and kept in an air-tight container prior to analyses.

Results: The proximate composition of C. gariepinus revealed that crude protein concentration was in the following proportions; electric drying method (52.16+0.01%), non-electric drying method (43.40+0.00%), smoking method (32.72+0.00%) and fresh (23.01+0.00%). The lipid content of smoked and electric-dried C. gariepinus was significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to the fresh sample. However, there was no significant difference between the lipid content of fresh C. gariepinus sample and non-electric dried sample. The carbohydrate content increased in the smoking and electric drying methods but decreased in the non-electric drying method. The ash content increased only in the smoking method but decreased in both the electric dryer and non-electric dryer methods. Fresh samples had the highest moisture content (74.03+0.00%) while the least was observed in the electric dried sample (38.84+0.00%). The percent anti-nutrient composition of C. gariepinus showed that smoked samples had the highest flavonoid concentration (3.252±0.00%) which was not significantly higher (p>0.05) than the flavonoid content of electric dried C. gariepinus (2.89±0.33). The levels of selected minerals showed varying concentrations of potassium, sodium and calcium for the various processing methods.

Conclusion: Modern drying methods had a significant effect on the proximate component, flavonoids, and oxalate composition of C. gariepinus. Electric drying method showed to be a better method of drying Clarias gariepinus compared to other drying methods.

Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, catfish, drying methods proximate, antinutrient, mineral composition


How to Cite

Okwakpam , F. N., Felagha , I., Gbogbara , M. V., & Uahomo , P. O. (2023). Study on the Effect of Different Drying Methods on the Proximate, Nutritional and Mineral Composition of Clarias gariepinus (Catfish). European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 15(6), 31–39. https://doi.org/10.9734/ejnfs/2023/v15i61314

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abraha B, Admassu H, Mahmud A, Tsighe N, Shui XW, Fang Y. Effect of processing methods on nutritional and physicochemical composition of fish: A review. MOJ Food Process Technol. 2018;6(4):376-82.

Abdel-Gaber R, El Garhy M, Morsy K. Prevalence and intensity of helminth parasites of African catfish Clarias gariepinus in Lake Manzala, Egypt. Adv Biosci Biotechnol. 2015;6(07):464-9.

Adeyeye SAO, Oyewole OB, Obadina AO, Omemu AM, Adeniran OE, Oyedele HA et al. Quality and safety assessment of traditional smoked fish from Lagos State, Nigeria. Int J Aquacult, 5. 2015;5773:1927.

Abeni AA, Ibiyinka O, Funmilayo CF. Effect of processing on the nutritive value of Clarias gariepinus from Isinla fish pond, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. Am J Biosci. 2015;3(6):262-6.

Reza SA, Karmaker S, Hasan M, Roy S, Hoque R, Rahman N. Effect of traditional fish processing methods on the proximate and microbiological characteristics of Laubuka dadiburjori during storage at room temperature. J Fish Aquat Sci. 2015;10(4):232-43.

Hesham AEL, Kaur T, Devi R, Kour D, Prasad S, Yadav N et al. Current trends in microbial biotechnology for agricultural sustainability: conclusion and future challenges. In: Current trends in Microbial Biotechnology for Sustainable Agriculture. Singapore: Springer. 2021;555-72.

Olojo EAA, Olurin KB, Mbaka G, Oluwemimo AD. Histopathology of the gill and liver tissues of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus exposed to lead. Afr J Biotechnol. 2005;4(1):117-22.

Horwitz W. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Agricultural chemicals, contaminants, drugs Horwitz W, editor. Vol. I. Gaithersburg, MD: AOAC International. 2010; 1997.

Win A, Thida Nyo AMT, Lwin KM. Determination of total flavonoid content of commonly consumed commercial tea. Int J Sci Res Publ. 2019;9(5):802-5.

Ninaw U, Ratnakumar U. Traditional drying methods. Res Food Sci. 2008;10(5): 148-56.

Sinduja J, P, Jamila P. Immaculate. Int Food Res J. Biochemical and microbial qualities of Sardinella fimbriata sun dried in different methods. 2012;19:1699-703.

Chukwu O, Shaba IM. Effects of Drying Methods on Proximate Compositions of catfish (Clarias gariepinus). World J Agric Sci. 2009;5:114-6.

Chili O, Saha B. Fish processing technology. Indian J Fish. 2009;9(1): 156161.

Olusanya JO. Essentials of food and nutrition. 2nd ed. Nigeria: Apex Books Limited. ISBN-9789784804554; 2008.

Kumolu-Johnson CA, Aladetohun NS, Ndimele PE. The effects of smoking on the nutritional qualities and shelf-life of Clarias gariepinus (LACEPEDE). Afr J Biotechnol. 2010;9(1):073-6.

Mustapha P, Howgate PA, Johnson P, Whittle KJ. Multingual guide to EC preservation method of fish drying augment the quality and the shelf life. Academic Press. 2012;7(1):30-42.

Guan W, Tarrio J, Jafor M, Ashra M. Methods of preserving fish. J Food Sci. 2013;7(3):78-83.

Karamać M. Chelation of Cu(II), Zn(II), and Fe(II) by tannin constituents of selected edible nuts. Int J Mol Sci. 2009; 10(12):5485-97.

Adamczyk B, Simon J, Kitunen V, Adamczyk S, Smolander A. Tannins and their complex interaction with different organic nitrogen compounds and enzymes: Old paradigms versus recent advances. Chemistry Open. 2017;6(5): 610-4.

Gemede HF, Ratta N. Antinutritional factors in plant foods: Potential health benefits and adverse effects. Int J Nutr Food Sci. 2014;3(4):284-9.

Lo D, Wang HI, Wu WJ, Yang RY. Anti-nutrient components and their concentrations in edible parts of vegetable families. CAB Rev. 2018;13(15):10-1079.

Popova A, Mihaylova D. Anti-nutrients in plant-based foods: A review. Open Biotechnol J. 2019;13(1).

Raboy V, Young KA, Dorsch JA, Cook A. Genetics and breeding of seed phosphorus and phytic acid. J Plant Physiol. 2001;158(4):489-97.

Vansudevan DM, Sreekumari S. Kannan Vaidyanathan. Textbook of biochemistry for medical students. 6th Edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi–110002, India; 2011.