Open Access Short Research Article

Prevalence of Candida Species in ‘Thairu’ a Traditional Fermented Milk of Kerala, India

Archana Chandran, C. K. Linsha, A. K. Beena

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 15-19
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111261

Aims: To determine the prevalence of Candida species in ‘thairu’, a traditional fermented milk prepared in the households of Kerala.

Study Design: ‘Thairu’ samples collected randomly from the households in Wayanad, Kozhikode, Malappuram, Palakkad and Kannur districts of Kerala. This was followed by enumeration and identification of yeast using API 20CAUX Kit. Determination of pH and acidity of samples.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Dairy Microbiology, College of Dairy Science and Technology, Pookode, Wayanad, Kerala. September 2021- December 2021.

Methodology: A total of 30 household ‘thairu’ samples were collected from households of Wayanad, Kozhikode, Malappuram, Palakkad and Kannur districts of Kerala in sterile bottles. The samples were serially diluted in normal saline and pour plated on to Yeast Extract Glucose Chloramphenicol Agar for isolation and enumeration. The pH was measured using pH meter by directly inserting the probe into the homogenized sample. Titratable acidity in per cent lactic acid was measured using N/10 NaOH. The isolates were identified based on the sugar fermentation pattern using API 20C AUX kit (Biomerieux, France).

Results: The yeast count in the samples ranged from 5.0 to 6.7 log CFU/g with an average of 5.89±0.38 log CFU/g. Average acidity and pH of the samples were 1.92±0.34 % LA and 3.59±0.60 respectively. A total of 23 yeast isolates were identified based on morphology and carbohydrate fermentation pattern using API 20C AUX kit (Biomerieux, France). Exactly 86.95 per cent of isolates belong to Candida species.

Conclusion: Observations of the study revealed the high prevalence of Candida species in traditional fermented milk ‘thairu’. Predominant Candida species were lactose fermenters, but the presence of a few species with spoilage and pathogenicity potential were also detected. The safety assessment of Candida species is essential before applying them as starter cultures for food fermentations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Impact of Processing on Physiochemical and Biochemical Properties of Osmodehydrated Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L) Merr.) Cuboid and Its Storage Stability

Arjuma Sultana, Uma Ghosh

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111262

Osmotic dehydration of pineapple cuboids were conducted to study the effect of sugar concentration of osmotic solution on mass transfer, weight reduction, vitamin-C, total phenol content and antioxidant property of samples pretreated with steam blanching and microwave heating. As treatment time went on, there was an increase in water loss, weight loss, and solids accumulation. The sample treated with 60°B experienced the highest mass transfer during the osmotic dehydration of pineapple cuboids, whereas the sample treated with 30°B experienced the lowest mass transfer. The pineapple cuboids immersed in 60˚B sugar syrup and dried in a tray drier resulted maximum weight loss. Microwave heated samples dipped in 60˚B sugar syrup showed better retention of nutritive value(total phenol content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity) as well as better color, texture, taste and mouth feel .According to the sensory analysis, the samples treated with 60°B solution received the highest acceptability for color, flavour, texture, mouth feel, and taste. Osmodried samples were stored for 3 months at ambient condition without any adverse effect on sensory and nutritional parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Charcoal Preservation Methods on the Biochemical Parameters of Three Varieties of Plantain (Musa ssp)

Sabli Loh Tinnde Charles, Wohi Maniga, Coulibaly Souleymane, Kouadio N’guessan Eugene Jean Parfait

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111260

Aims: To contribute to solving plantain post-harvest losses, six preservation methods combining charcoal and polyethylene bags were experimented on three different varieties of plantain (SACI, Big-Ebanga, and Orishele).

Place and Duration of Study: This work was carried out at the Biocatalysis and Bioprocesses Laboratory of Nangui Abrogoua University in Abidjan and the Food Technology Laboratory of the National Center for Agronomic Research in Côte d'Ivoire.

Methodology: Some Biochemical parameters of these fruits are monitored to know the effects of these preservation methods during storage.

Results: The outcomes indicate an average shelf green life extension of up to 30 days for fruits preserved in polyethylene containing charcoal, while fruits preserved in polyethylene without charcoal have only 24 days on average. The control test (fruits stored in the open air) showed an average shelf green life of 12 days. During storage, total carbohydrate levels increase and values range from 92.49% to 70.05%. Those of total sugars also increase and the levels evolve from 0.47 to 30.83 g/100 g DM. On the other hand, there is a decrease in starch levels (42.66 and 64.05 mg/100g DM).

Conclusion: Charcoal can extend the shelf green life of plantain bananas for up to a month. These methods can be recommended to actors in the sector to reduce post-harvest losses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Packaging Materials and Storage Temperatures on the Microbiological Quality of Hibiscus sabdarifa Drinks during Ambient and Refrigeration Storage

Patience Chisa Obinna-Echem, Felicia Inyle Cookey

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 30-42
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111263

Aims: To evaluate the effect of packaging materials and storage temperatures on the microbiological quality of Hibiscus sabdarifa drinks produced with: 1) commercial pineapple flavour (HCPF) and; 2) Phoenix dactylifera (38%) and pineapple extract (2%) (HPPE).

Methodology: Pasteurized drinks packaged in polyethylene sachets, plastic and glass bottles were stored at refrigeration (4.4±2oC) and ambient (25±2oC) temperatures for 27 and 9 days respectively.

Results: There was significant (P≤0.05) decrease in total bacterial count in HCPF (≤4.51-≥2.14 Log10CFU/ml) with higher death rate (0.06) in plastic bottles at 4.4±2oC while at 25±2oC it increased significantly (P≤0.05) in HPPE samples (4.00-≤4.95 Log10CFU/ml) with least growth rate in plastic bottles (0.02). Yeast count at 25±2oC (1.28 – 2.15 Log10CFU/ml) was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than at 4.4±2oC (1.00 – 1.60 Log10CFU/ml) and drinks in plastic bottles had the least growth rates (≤0.03). Coliform (2.04 – 2.59 Log10CFU/ml), Escherichia coli (2.00 – 2.93 Log10CFU/ml) and Staphylococcus (2.00 – 2.50 Log10CFU/ml) sparingly detected, were unable to grow in the drinks with greater inhibition at 25±2oC in all packaging materials. No growth of Salmonella was observed in the drinks. Glass bottles favoured more microbial growth but the levels were satisfactory for all packaging which is indicative of microbiological safety.

Conclusion: Any of the packaging material can be used for packaging of Hibiscus sabdarifa drinks with storage at refrigeration temperature for ≤ 21 days. It is informative to both consumers and producers that the then wasted pineapple peels can serve as an ingredient in Hibiscus sabdarifa drink production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cooking on Physicochemical and Microstructural Properties of Chicken Breast Meat

Samson Ugochukwu Alugwu, Thomas M. Okonkwo, Michael O. Ngadi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 43-62
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111264

The effect of cooking on pH, juiciness, instrumental colour and microstructural properties of chicken breast meat was investigated. Industrial skinless chicken breast meat samples were purchased, frozen and sliced into dimensions , thawed and cooked by air frying (AF), baking (BK), deep fat frying (DF) and grilling (GR) at  170, 180 and 1900C for 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 min. The pH value of the cooked samples increased from 6.05 to 6.25. Cooking methods, temperatures and times each resulted to increase in pH. The results of objective sensory instrumental analyses showed that cooking decreased significantly (p < 0.05) juiciness of cooked chicken breast meat. Samples cooked by BK had the highest juiciness value of 24.91%, while DF cooked samples had the least value of 13.89%.The instrumental analyses increased L*, a*, b* values and browning index. The temperature and time of cooking showed similar effects on juiciness and instrumental colour. Short cooking time (8 min) and 1700C resulted in higher juiciness and best appetizing appearance to the consumers. The microstructure studies showed that raw chicken breast meat had an intact muscle fibres and bundles, but cooking caused disintegration of muscle fibres, perimysial – collagen shrinkage and it resulted to drier samples with big cracks/ voids and big surface damages, particularly in AF, BK and GR cooked products at 1900C for 8 min.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Therapeutic Foods on Hematological Parameters of Malnourished Children Admitted at the Intensive Nutritional Recovery Center of Tessaoua, Maradi, Niger Republic

Maman Manzo Lawaly, Katinka Ibrahim Hannanou, Abdou Maman Mansour, Moussa Haladou Mansour, Zoubeirou Alzouma Mayaki

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 63-71
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111265

Aims: To evaluate the impact of the therapeutic foods on the hematological parameters of malnourished children below 5 years of age.

Study Design:  This is a Prospective cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Intensive Nutritional Recovery Center of Tessaoua, Maradi, Niger republic, from June 15 to September 10, 2022.

Methodology: We included 60 malnourished children (36 males, 24 females; age range 6-59 months) who are severely acutely malnourished. Standard survey forms that were developed for the purpose have permitted to obtain sociodemographic and hematological data (hemoglobin level and leukocyte count) concerning malnourished children.

Results: The results showed that among the 60 children that were surveyed, at entry, 50 (83.33%) were recorded to have a low hemoglobin level and 36 (60%) with highly elevated leucocyte count. At the end of treatment with therapeutic foods, it was observed an overall normalization of these parameters during an average duration of hospitalization.

Conclusion: Therapeutic foods have shown a significant positive influence on hematological parameters of malnourished children. Their use should therefore be encouraged in line with other strategies in order to ensure good and rapid recovery in malnourished children under five years of age.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison and Reasons for Diet-intake before and after COVID-19 Lockdown in Selected Households in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria

Ucheh Bernadette Ifeoma, Umeh Chisom Charles, Onuche Job Itanyi

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 72-78
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111266

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic between 2019-2020 resulted in lockdowns and travel restrictions worldwide. This could however, significantly influence the dietary habits of humans worldwide considering its economic, financial and health impacts.

Aims: The study aims to investigate dietary habits in selected households in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Methodology:  24 hour dietary recall was used to collect dietary data on meals consumed a day before interview both before and after the lockdown was lifted using the same questionnaire, a total of 50 respondents, 25 female and 25 male. Convinience sampling was used in the knowledge, attitude and practice study.

Results:  The respondents had an improvement in diet choices post COVID-19 lockdown as show on the charts above, the increase in the consumption of fruits /vegetable (7%) and spice/seasoning (5%) food groups was majorly as a result of their associated health and wellbeing benefits however, there was also a reduction in the percentage intake of protein (5%) and complex carbohydrates (13%) probably due to the overall reduction in caloric intake. An increase of 4% was also recorded in the intake of simple carbohydrates.

Conclusion: There was an overall improvement in diet choices and lifestyle post Covid-19 in the Study Area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield of Tomatillo as Influenced by Planting Time and Macronutrients

Abdullah Salfe Al Shamim, Tahmina Mostarin, Khaleda Khatun, Shamsun Nahar, Tahira Begum, Md. Khokon Uzzaman, Asif Ahmed, Abdullah All Imtiaz, Md. Anisur Rahaman, Md. Abdus Samad

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 94-105
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111268

With the use of a strategic pairing of planting time and macronutrients, tomatillo growth and yield can be boosted. Due to their complementing effects, the ideal combination of different planting times and macronutrients may significantly boost tomatillo growth and yield. The experiment was set by taking two treatment factors. Our treatment factors were: (1) Planting time (three time’s viz. T1 = 02 November, T2 = 12 November, and T3 = 22 November); and (2) Macro nutrients (four levels viz. F0 = N0P0K0 Kg/ha, F1 = N200P60K100 Kg/ha, F2= N250P90K120Kg/ha, F3 = N300P120K140 Kg/ha). The two factors experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. In case of  planting time, the sharp increase of fruits per plant (37.06), fruit weight (42.7 g), yield per plant ( 2.04 kg) and per hectare ( 85.06 t) were obtained from T3 (22 November). In case of macronutrients, the maximum number of fruits per plant (47.26), fruit weight ( 48.47 g), yield per plant ( 2.75 kg) and per hectare ( 114.59 t) were obtained from F1 (N200P60K100  Kg/ha). Combined effect (T3F1)  had improved the number of fruits per plant (49.66), fruit weight ( 55.64 g), yield per plant ( 2.94 kg) and per hectare ( 122.84 t), vitamin C content (25.92 mg) and noted from T1F0 (02 November with  N0P0K0Kg/ha) treatment combination that minimum number of fruits per plant (14.0), fruit weight ( 24.69 g), yield per plant ( 0.5 kg) and per hectare ( 20.85 t), vitamin C content (16.63 mg). So, the T3F1 treatment combination appeared to be the best for achieving the higher growth and yield of tomatillo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Properties of Noodles Analogue from Water Yam, Yellow Maize, and African Yam Bean Mixtures – A Response Surface Methodology

C. E. Kalu, I. C. Alaka, K. C. Asadu, K. C. OKpara, C. C. Daniel

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 106-121
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111269

Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of extrusion process on proximate composition of noodles analogue from water yam, yellow maize, and African yam bean flour mixture. Flour blend from water yam, yellow maize, and African yam bean were produced and was used to extrude noodles analogue using a Brabender single screw laboratory extruder (Duisburg DCE 330 model) fitted with 3.0 mm die nozzle diameter. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with three variables, namely barrel temperature, feed moisture content  and screw speed and five level coded – a, -1, 0, +1, +a, was used and data analyzed by regression analysis. Results showed that bulk density ranged from 0.41 to 0.09 g/cm water solubility index ranged from 4.41 to 6.36%; water absorption capacity ranged from 2.05 to 5.66% and expansion ratio ranged from 1.62 to 3.81respectively. The coefficients of determinations (R2) were high and ranged from 0.9039 to 0.9887 at 5% level. The response surface plots suggested that the models developed had a good fit and the CCRD was effective in explaining the effect of the process conditions on noodles analogue as influenced by barrel temperature, feed moisture content, and screw speed of the extruder. The data obtained from the study could be used for control of product characteristics. The study indicated that improved noodles analogue from available and cheap roots, cereal and legumes such as water yam, yellow maize, and African yam bean can be produced for possible projection for the commercial production of noodles analogue.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Physical-chemical Parameters in Bee Products: A Preliminary Investigation from Africa’s Most Renewed Bee Village in Tanzania

Kachinde, Jumanne Lucas, Leonard W. T. Fweja, Matobola Joel Mihale

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 122-133
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111270

Aim: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the determination of physical-chemical parameters in bee products: a preliminary investigation from Africa’s most renewed bee village in Tanzania; specifically, the study presents preliminary findings of an inquiry that examined pesticide contamination in bee products from Kijiji cha Nyuki located in Tanzania. The study measured the levels of physical-chemical parameters in honey products harvested from the selected bee apiaries.

Material and Methods: A mixed methods approach was adopted for this study and collected data both primary and secondary data were collected using physical observation and survey, interviews, and questionnaires, purposive and random sampling techniques were used in this study to select a total of 104 participants who was taken as a sample from universal populations. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Computer Programme version 25, where the statistics aspect was determined from the results obtained from both questionnaires and laboratory experiments. A preliminary investigation from Africa’s most renewed bee village in Tanzania; Collected samples were analyzed at TBS & SGS laboratories.

Results: The results show all studied areas met honey quality assurance guidelines stipulated by the ministry of natural resources and tourism suggesting moisture content in honey should not exceed 21%. pH test showed honey sample from Egypt apiaries had higher pH of 4.3 and honey from Kijiji cha Nyuki had a low pH of 3.54 implying honey from the studied areas falls within the pH applicable range. Test of Hydroxylmethly furfural mg/kg discovered an average of 13.65 mg/kg in honey samples from 4 studied areas out of the 5, with 107.13 mg/kg of HMF in honey samples from Egypt. Suggesting that honey samples from the 4 study areas with exception of samples from Egypt met the TZS 851:2006 standards and national’s guidelines of 40mg/kg Hydroxylmethly furfural. Finally, the Test of total reducing sugar as inverted sugar % m/m, from five samples as per Tanzania Bureau of Statistics (TBS) laboratory results found a maximum of 68.91 % m/m and 64.4 % m/m minimum. The amount of physical-mechanical contaminations that were identified in honey from 4 areas with the exemption of samples from Egypt apiaries poses no risk to consumers.

Contribution to Policy Implication: This study recommends interventions among farmers and beekeepers on the safe use of pesticides, good hygienic handling, and the storage practices. It has contributed to the understanding of how the regulations outlining the use of insecticides is being implemented, and the current economic condition of studied farms. This calls on policymakers to rethink ways of engaging the beekeepers, and to have an ongoing discussion with beekeepers and concerned stakeholders about a model that could be used to enhance pesticides regulation in Tanzania.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Combination of Vivianite Powder and Compost Derived Poultry Litter: Appropriate Biological Fertilizer to Improve Nutritional Values of Carrot (Daucus Carota L.)

Bachirou Hamadou, Tchuenteu Tatchum Lucien, Maimouna Abba, Megueni Clautilde, Njintang Yanou Nicolas

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 134-145
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111271

Aims: To improve the nutritional values of carrot in the Great North Cameroon by using natural fertilizing.

Study Design: A 11x2x2 factorial design with 11 origins of carrot roots (fertilizing) (T0, T+, P10, P15, Py10, Py15, F1, F1+P10, F1+P15, F1+Py10 and F1+Py15), 02 harvest areas (Maroua and Ngaoundere (Cameroon)) and 02 harvest years (2019 and 2020).

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biodiversity and Sustainable Development, University of Ngaoundere Cameroon, September 2019 and September 2020.

Methodology: Nutrient parameters of carrot roots (moisture, vitamin C, carotenoids, fiber, carbohydrates and ash of carrot roots contents) were assessed according to standard methods.

Results: Globally, carrot nutritional values varied significantly (p<0.05) depending on fertilizer, harvest area (Ngaoundere and Maroua Cameroon), and harvest year (2019 and 2020). The carrot nutrient contents from Maroua Cameroon were higher than those from Ngaoundere. The highest carrot nutrients content was from F1+P10 plots (combination of 1 Kg of poultry litter with 10 g of vivianite powder). In Maroua, roots from treated carrot plants with F1+P10 fertilizer are 1.55 and 1.24 fold richer in carotenoids than those from T0 and T+ plants respectively in 2019 ; in growing year 2020, the carotenoid contents of F1+P10 roots were 1.52 fold and 1.29 fold higher than those of T0 and T+ plants. In Ngaoundere, Vitamin C content of carrots from F1+P10 fertilizer is 1.79 fold higher than that of T0 plants and 1.18 fold higher than that of T+ plants in 2019, while in 2020 the value of this parameter was 1.69 fold and 1.47 fold higher than that of T0 and T+ plants respectively. The F1+P10 fertilizer encreased total carbohydrate content at 51.88 % compared to T0 and 20.03 % compared to T+ in Maroua, and at 27.59 % and 7.95 % compared to T0 and T+ respectively in Ngaoundere.

Conclusion: By used F1+P10 natural fertilizer for carrot growing, we contribute to improve the nutritional values of this vegetable crop, but also to valorize our local resources in biological agriculture, as well as to protect the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pathogenicity of Fungi Isolated from Spoilt Sweet Oranges (Citrus sinensis) and from the Air in the Environment of the Orange Section of the Gamboru Market in Maiduguri, Nigeria

Akinmusire, Olubamise Oyekemi, Divine-Anthony Ofon-Mbuk

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 160-168
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111273

Aim: Though Oranges are very important crops for man both economically and in terms of nutrition, they have a short life span due to poor handling during harvesting, transporting, and storage. The ubiquitous nature of fungi makes them ready contaminants for these oranges especially when their skin is broken. The aim of this study is to isolate, identify and determine the pathogenicity of fungi responsible for spoilage in sweet oranges and investigate the presence of fungi in the air of the environment where these oranges are sold.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology Faculty of Science University of Maiduguri between September and October 2020.

Methodology: A total of 100 samples of ripe oranges with signs of spoilage (n=100) were collected randomly from 10 selling points in the Gamboru fruit market in Maiduguri, Borno state of Nigeria, and analyzed for fungal isolates using morphometric techniques. Two mycological media Potato Dextrose Agar and Malt Extract Agar (PDA and MEA) were used for isolation, by deploying direct plating method. Petri dishes containing prepared PDA and MEA were also exposed to the air in the shops for some minutes. Morphometric analysis was carried out to identify the fungal isolates using macroscopic and microscopic observed features. Pathogenicity tests were carried out to ascertain the ability of these isolates to cause spoilage.

Results: The results of the morphometric characterization revealed the presence of seven (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillium oxalicum, Rhizopus oryzae, Cladiosporium sphaerospermum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) different fungi from the air and from the deteriorating oranges. Four of the isolates which were also positive for pathogenicity and observed to be responsible for causing spoilage in the oranges were also found to be the same as those isolated from the air, while three other organisms isolated from the air in the sales environment were not isolated from the spoilt oranges. Penicillium oxalicum was isolated from 41% of the oranges making it the most predominant organism causing spoilage in the oranges while Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from only 10% of the samples.

Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that fungal contaminants were responsible for the spoilage of oranges in this market and many of them were present in the air in the shops where these oranges were sold and stored leading to serious economic losses for both farmers and consumers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Engineering Parameters Responses during Extrusion Processing of Noodles Analogue from Water Yam, Yellow Maize, and African Yam Bean Flour Mixture

C. E. Kalu, V. O. Obinna, O. I. Enyi, P. K. Onum

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 169-175
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111274

This study investigated the effect of extrusion process on engineering properties of noodles analogue from water yam, yellow maize, and African yam bean. Flour blend from water yam, yellow maize, and African yam bean were produced using the standard method of dry milling and was used to extrude noodles analogue using a brabender single screw laboratory extruder (Duisburg DCE 330 model) fitted with 3.0mmdie nozzle diameter. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with three variables, namely barrel temperature, feed moisture content  and screw speed and five level coded – a, -1, 0, +1,, +a, was used for the study and data was generated at (p<0.05). Results of result of the engineering properties of noodles analogue showed that toque ranged from 22.4 to 60.50Nm/s, mass flow rate ranged from 33.90 to 109g/min-1, specific mechanical energy ranged from 100.19 to 385.97kj/kg, and the residence time ranged from 22 to 55s in this study. The CCRD was effective in explaining the effect of the process conditions on noodles analogue as influenced by barrel temperature, feed moisture content, and screw speed of the extruder. The data obtained from the study could be used for control of product characteristics.It was generally observed that the changing of feed moisture content, barrel temperature, and screw speed influenced an acceptable torque, mass flow rate, and residence time during the extruder operation. The noodles analogue produced at this cheap machine operating conditions could be projected for commercial production.

Open Access Review Article

Potentials of Cassava, Bambara Groundnut and Tigernut in Biscuit Production: A Review

Ubaka Izunna Tochukwu, Agu Helen Obioma, Victor-Aduloju Adeyemisi Tope, Mba Joy Chinenye

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 79-93
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111267

Due to varying changes in lifestyle, economic level and urbanization in the developing countries, the consumption of biscuit and the development of food products using composite flour have increased and are attracting much attention from researchers in bakery and pastry productions. This work reviewed the potentials of cassava, bambara groundnut and tigernut composite flours in biscuit production. This study also includes studies on the use of flours from other tubers, legumes, cereals, and fruit sources in place of wheat flour to make a variety of food products in varying amounts. It was revealed that flour made from cassava, bambara groundnut and tigernut used to produce biscuit products has the capacity of maintaining similar characteristics to products made from full-wheat flour. The finished result demonstrates the cumulative impact of this option in terms of its functional and physicochemical features, as well as the health advantages of raw mixed flour and percentage blending.

In addition, composite flour is an excellent new strategy for employing unusual food products becaue its use produced goods with a range of qualities and features, depending on the types and proportions of wheat flour used in the formulation.

Also this review stated some possible challenges likely to be encountered in case Nigeria changes from use of wheat flour to composite flours and blends of non-wheat flours.

Open Access Review Article

A Critical Review on Physiological Changes during Growth Maturation and Ripening of Citrus Fruits

Neelam Sachan, Vivek Kumar

European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, Page 146-159
DOI: 10.9734/ejnfs/2022/v14i111272

Citrus is one of the major fruit crops in the world and widely recognized by their nutritional, organoleptic and health-related benefits of fresh fruit. The genetic diversity among the genus and independent changes in peel and pulp, make the definition of standard maturity indexes of fruit quality. Commercial maturity indexes in the citrus industry are usually based on peel coloration, soluble solids, pH but their relevance may differ among varieties and the specific requirements of the markets. Citrus fruits are excellent source of many phytochemical, including ascorbic acid, antioxidant, tannin, etc., which greatly contribute to the health-related benefits of citrus fruits. Criteria and definition of the main maturity indexes for citrus fruit worldwide are described, as well as changes during fruit maturation in key components affecting organoleptic and nutritional properties. Citrus fruits were analyzed at different maturity stages. This review is aimed to characterize the physiological maturity of the fruit across the different developmental stage which has not been well reported in literature till now.